BS: Heidelberg College, Tiffin, OH, 1970.
MD: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH, 1974.
Internship: Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, 1974-1975.
Residency: Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 1975-1978.
Fellowship: Retina-Vitreous & Ocular Oncology, Wills Eye Hospital, Philadelphia, PN, 1978-1980.
Board Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology, 1979.