MD: Medical College Of Ohio at Toledo, Toledo, Ohio, 1984.
MSc: University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1976.
BS: University of Cincinnati, Ohio, 1972.
Internship: Akron General Medical Center, Akron, Ohio, 1985.
Residency: Northeastern Ohio University College of Medicine Canton, Ohio, 1987.
Fellow: Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, Ohio, 1988.
Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, 1995; ACLS 2009; PALS 2009.