MD: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1976.
PhD: Physiology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, 1973.
Residency: Pediatrics, University of Cincinnati and Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1978.
Fellowship: Moffitt Hospital, Cardiovascular Research Institute, University of California at San Francisco, San Francisco, Calif., 1980.
Certifications: Pediatrics, 1982 Neonatal; Perinatal Medicine, 1983.