A Pap test (sometimes called a Pap smear) is sometimes done during a pelvic or gynecologic examination. During a Pap test, the clinician uses a small soft brush to collect cells from the cervix, or the opening of the uterus (womb). The cells are then sent to a laboratory to be examined to determine if they are normal or abnormal. Abnormal cells are often caused by infection with human papillomavirus (HPV), a sexually transmitted infection (STI). The Pap test is separate from other tests for STIs such as gonorrhea or chlamydia but can be done during the gynecologic examination.