Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition

Division Details

Division Data Summary

Research and Training Details

Number of Faculty34
Number of Joint Appointment Faculty1
Number of Research Fellows2
Number of Research Students2
Number of Support Personnel41
Direct Annual Grant Support$5,510,637
Direct Annual Industry Support$301,624
Peer Reviewed Publications110

Clinical Activities and Training

Number of Clinical Staff86
Number of Clinical Fellows13
Inpatient Encounters8854
Outpatient Encounters21839

Division Photo

Gastroenterology Hepatology and Nutrition

Row 1: J Bezerra, M Cohen, S Pentiuk, C Yin, S Huppert

Row 2: S Gandhi, S Saeed, A Kaul, C Wetzel, C Cole

Row 3: S Moore, D Dykes, M Leonis, A Miethke, M Farrell

Significant Accomplishments

Significant Accomplishments

Digestive Health Center One of 17 Core Research Centers Nationwide

The Digestive Health Center (DHC) directed by Jorge Bezerra, MD, and managed by Cynthia Wetzel, PhD, is one of only 17 Silvio O. Conte Digestive Diseases Research Core Centers in the U.S., and the only one dedicated to pediatric diseases. The center seeks to improve diagnosis, treatments and outcomes for chronic liver disease, inflammatory and diarrheal diseases and obesity. Our center engages 102 investigators from 21 divisions within the Department of Pediatrics and eight other departments within the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine. This year, we added nine investigators from Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Allergy and Immunology, Oncology, Endocrinology, Infectious Diseases, and Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology. Alexander Miethke, MD, a member of our Division, was among those joining the center after receiving NIH funding to study the role of regulatory T cells in biliary atresia. Noah Shroyer, PhD, a DHC member from our Division, was elected  Vice Chair of the Growth, Development and Child Health Section of the American Gastroenterological Association. Also in 2013, the DHC started the Pluripotent Stem Cell and Organoid Core, under the leadership of  James Wells, PhD,  and Chris Mayhew, PhD, which uses state-of-the-art technology to advance translational research in digestive diseases. Collectively, DHC investigators have received $32.5 million in extramural research funds and have published more than 140 peer-reviewed articles during the past 12 months. Our successful Pilot and Feasibility Program also distributed $1.15 million among 29 junior investigators since 2007. These investigators have since attracted $20.1 million in extramural grant funding.

Liver Transplant Program Reducing Immunosuppression Dose Levels

Immunosuppression is a critical component of the care of children following liver transplantation. The goal is to administer the lowest possible dosage to prevent rejection, both in the short- and long-term phases of life of after transplant. John Bucuvalas, MD, is our site principal investigator for the IWITH trial, a multi-center study of immunosuppression withdrawal in children with stable graft function. The trial addresses key conclusions of the NIH-sponsored 2007 consensus conference on long-term outcomes in pediatric liver transplantation, which states that long-term immunosuppression can lead to  substantial complications and that identifying biomarkers to predict therapy tolerance could lessen the risk. The overriding goal of the IWITH trial is to guide clinical decision-making to achieve safe withdrawal of immunosuppression. The 12-center study is jointly funded by NIDDK and NIAID. Sandy Feng MD, PhD, from the University of California San Francisco is the trial principal investigator. In addition to his local role, Bucuvalas serves as the study’s protocol chair.

Inflammatory Bowel Disease Services Continue to Grow

More than 700 children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) from 25 states visited Cincinnati Children’s in the past year to receive primary IBD care and second opinions. Many families are seeking  our state-of-the art services, which include diagnostic imaging without radiation exposure and targeted psychology interventions for non-adherence. Many others are seeking expert advice. Our volume of second opinion patients has quadrupled in the past three years. In February, more than 300 families attended our annual Family Education and Support day, which continues to grow in collaboration with the local Crohn’s and Colitis Foundation of America chapter. Our research efforts this year included contributing to international genome-wide association studies to identify susceptibility genes for pediatric-onset disease, and prospective cohort studies to develop personalized models of disease behavior and response to therapy. In collaboration with the Broad Institute, MIT, we have characterized the gut microbial community and host response in 1,600 children with IBD  and have used this information to define novel pathogenic mechanisms and patient sub-groups. Our investigators are deeply involved in launching the PROTECT study, the first NIH-funded multi-center clinical trial to test a model for predicting therapeutic responses and clinical outcomes among newly diagnosed children with ulcerative colitis. The project will incorporate clinical, genomic, microbial and immune biomarkers that we have developed. At Cincinnati Children’s, this study includes Bruce Trapnell, MD, Pulmonary Biology;  Mi-Ok Kim, PhD, Epidemiology and Biostatistics; and Bruce Aronow, PhD, Biomedical Informatics. Meanwhile, Kevin Hommel, PhD, is leading the first randomized controlled multi-center trial of a telemedicine intervention to improve medication adherence in children with IBD. Knowledge gained from these studies will be rapidly translated into practice through our collaborations with Peter Margolis, MD, PhD, in Clinical Effectiveness, via his leadership of the ImproveCareNow (ICN) pediatric IBD quality improvement network. The IBD Center has played a leading role in ICN, which has achieved significant improvement in patient remission rates by implementing consensus patient care guidelines and practices. At Cincinnati Children’s, we have reached a sustained 67 percent remission rate among our IBD patients, up 20 percent over the past two years.

Research Highlights

Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders (CCED)

Research at the Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders (CCED) includes basic, clinical and translational studies. Phil Putnam, MD, has led projects including epidemiology, quality of life research, descriptive research databanks, specimen databanks, translational studies and clinical trials. In the past year, the CCED team participated in the publication of more than 10 manuscripts on aspects of eosinophilic disorders, including a major revision of the Consensus Recommendations for Diagnosis of Eosinophilic Esophagitis in children and adults. Marc Rothenberg, MD, PhD, continues basic science research to understand the genetic and immunologic bases for eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. As a continuation of our $1.5 million NIH stimulus research grant awarded in 2009, the first national Registry for Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders ( was launched in 2010 and has begun enrolling patients. The CCED is leading a multi-center registry collaboration with eight pediatric and adult hospitals with plans for further expansion. This year, Vincent Mukkada, MD, joined the CCED. He has recently published manuscripts on microRNA profiling of esophageal biopsies in EoE and the use of novel immunohistochemical biomarkers in pediatric EoE. In the coming year, the CCED will join a multicenter trial on the use of a new viscous budesonide product in EoE as well as initiate new trials on the use of losartan in EoE as well as novel dietary management strategies.

Cincinnati Children's Steatohepatitis Center

The Cincinnati Steatohepatitis Center (CCSC), led by Drs. Xanthakos and Kohli, is a multidisciplinary program that provides care to a growing population of pediatric patients with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFLD, the hepatic consequence of obesity and metabolic syndrome, affects about 10% of children and ranges from fatty liver alone (NAFLD) to fatty liver with varying degrees of liver inflammation and fibrosis (NASH). NASH is estimated to progress to cirrhosis and liver failure in an estimated 25% of adult individuals and has become the third leading cause for liver transplantation in adults. NAFLD and NASH often begin in childhood and progressive severe fibrosis can occur in early adolescence. Early identification and intervention is critical to minimize progression to end-stage liver disease. Since its inception in 2007, the CCSC has evaluated over 200 children and collaborates clinically with other obesity-related programs at Cincinnati Children’s, including the Center for Better Health and Nutrition, Sleep, Hypertension and Lipid, and Diabetes Clinics, and the Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens. Research highlights from the CCSC in fiscal year 2013 include publications of the effects of innovative animal models of bariatric surgery on NASH and bile acid physiology, including sleeve gastrectomy. The pre-clinical research program has further been supported by grants from Ethicon Endosurgery Inc. and Cincinnati Diabetes and Obesity Center. In clinical research, the CCSC is a leading pediatric site in the NIDDK-funded NASH Clinical Research Network (NASH CRN), a multi-center study investigating the natural history and determinants of NASH in adults and children. A NASH CRN clinical trial investigating cysteamine versus placebo for the treatment of pediatric NASH (CyNCH) is ongoing and anticipated to finish enrollment by December 2013. In the past year, the CCSC has published clinical and pre-clinical papers in the area of steatohepatitis research in the following journals: Endocrinology, Obesity, Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Clinical Liver Disease, Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, and the Indian Journal of Pediatrics.

Diarrhea and Malnutrition

Our goal is to advance the quality of care for children with diarrhea and malnutrition by creating new knowledge through robust research and clinical collaborations between Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center and international partners. Drs. Moore, Cole and Saeed have established and are evolving collaborations with colleagues in Brazil, Ghana, Nigeria and Pakistan focused on micronutrient deficiencies (zinc and iron), undernutrition, diarrheal diseases, and tropical/environmental enteropathy.

Sean Moore’s laboratory is broadly interested in understanding and reversing the “vicious cycle” of malnutrition and enteric infections in developing countries. Current areas of focus are: 1) laboratory and clinical studies of glutamine supplementation in enteroids, murine models of weanling malnutrition, and underweight children in Northeast Brazil (supported by the NIH and NASPGHAN Foundation), 2) human biomarkers and murine models of environmental enteropathy (supported by The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation), and 3) intestinal epithelial cell signaling networks linking cell cycle, metabolism, DNA damage response, and circadian rhythms (supported by the DARPA Biochronicity Program).

In a related program, Dr. Cohen completed phase I studies on a new candidate vaccine with potential efficacy against enterotoxigenic E. coli and cholera, two important causes of diarrhea in developing countries.

Interdisciplinary Feeding Team (IFT)

This multi-disciplinary team provides comprehensive evaluation of children with swallowing/feeding disorders. It includes members from gastroenterology, otolaryngology, human genetics, speech therapy, occupational therapy, social work, and nutrition. Dr. Vincent Mukkada recently joined Scott Pentiuk, MD, as the second pediatric gastroenterologist on the team. The IFT continues to grow with over 1200 patient visits over the last year. The team has also had extensive outpatient treatment programs including co-treatment sessions and Parent-Child Interaction Training for families. Current IFT research projects include the use and development of a pureed by G-tube diet, quality of life assessment of feeding therapies, methods to evaluate children with swallowing dysfunction, and the creation of a prospective database in order to track the effectiveness of therapies and patient outcomes.

Intestinal Rehabilitation Program

The Intestinal Rehabilitation Program continues in its mission to provide the best possible care through innovation for patients to experience optimal outcome. We continue to experience considerable growth, and our program is one of the largest intestinal rehabilitation programs nationally, with active basic scientific, translational and clinical research. Drs. Kocoshis and Cole managed patients from 26 states and three countries in the past year. The multidisciplinary model to standardize care and facilitate research among the three disciplines (gastroenterology, neonatology and surgery) providing care to infants and children with intestinal failure continues to be successful. Currently the rate of survival without significant liver disease (as measured by cholestasis) of our patients with intestinal failure is among the highest nationally due to this initiative and rapid translation of research into clinical care. Specific initiatives, including active event analysis with the home healthcare services, have contributed to the significant reduction in the incidence of outpatient acquired central line bloodstream infections and we now have one of the lowest rates nationally.

Ongoing translational and clinical trials research initiatives include developing in vitro culture methods to grow and expand both normal and diseased intestinal tissue from patients with intestinal failure; validating the use of bomb calorimetry as a measure of enteral energy balance among intestinal failure patients; and feeding advancement trial in patients with gastroschisis to identify the method that optimally decreases the duration of TPN. An NIH/Emmaus Inc. funded multicenter clinical trial evaluating the safety and efficacy of enteral glutamine in the infants with short bowel syndrome continues to enroll participants. We also continue to enroll patients with persistent intestinal failure associated liver disease in an efficacy and safety trial using fish-oil derived lipid (Omegaven®) to prevent chronic liver disease and liver failure in this population.

Intestinal Transplantation Program

Under the leadership of Dr. Samuel Kocoshis, the Intestinal Transplant Program continues to implement quality improvement initiatives. The program, as the first within our medical center to utilize medical passports for patients, continues to use them with great success. The medical passport gives a snapshot of each patient’s medical history from pretransplant medical issues, the technical details of the transplant itself, to the unique postoperative problems faced by each patient. Individual drug reactions, organ dysfunction of other organ systems, and clinical quirks of each patient are highlighted in a cogent story which provides caregivers with insights to our patients that they would never have otherwise acquired. These insights facilitate the care of our patients wherever they travel, or whenever they are seen by either other divisions or by emergency physicians. Numerous physicians and other healthcare providers continue to commend us for providing such a comprehensive view of our patients. The medical passport focuses not only upon medical complications but also upon psychosocial issues that impact adversely upon outcomes.

Our program remains an active participant in hospital-wide QAPI initiatives. Our “dashboard” continues to show good outcomes in complying with regulatory procedures and in patient survival. Hence we are developing metrics for nutritional parameters such as BMI, 25-OH vitamin D levels, and other nutritional markers. We maintain a close association with the “adherence” program from the behavioral science department. A psychologist sees all of our patients as inpatients and outpatients in order to analyze and correct barriers to adherence. Moreover, among the 11 most recent patients transplanted between 2009 and 2012, we continue to have 100% one-year survival, making us the most successful program in North America in terms of patient survival for the three year period between 2009 and 2013.

We have embarked upon several research initiatives. We are working with the Behavioral Science Department, and have written an observational paper on the contributions that an adherence program can make within a transplantation program. We have also written an IRB protocol in collaboration with the Behavioral Science Department for a prospective study correlating clinical and psychosocial outcomes and regimen adherence of patients and their families following small bowel or multivisceral transplant. We have initiated a translational project in collaboration with Dr. Pierre Russo of the Pathology Department at Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia. It is a cross sectional study regarding the prevalence and significance of anti-enterocyte antibodies in small bowel transplantation. We hypothesize that anti-enterocyte antibodies may function as sensitive and specific biomarkers for antibody mediated rejection in intestinal transplantation. A third project is an emerging collaboration with Dr. Sander Vinks of the Clinical Pharmacology department to study intestinal metabolism of sirolimus and to study the ontogeny of that metabolism within the small intestine. A final protocol upon which we are about to embark is a collaborative study with Dr. Koji Hashimoto of the Cleveland Clinic. This study explores the role of helper T cells in acute cellular rejection of intestinal allografts. We will provide peripheral blood from patients undergoing intestinal transplant for flow cytometric analysis of T cell subpopulations. The hypothesis is that acute cellular rejection is most likely to occur when helper T cell populations are reconstituted following administration of antithymocyte globulin to intestinal transplant recipients.

The Liver Disease Program

The Liver Disease Program, led by Dr. Jorge Bezerra, provides comprehensive care for children with liver diseases. Staffed by seven pediatric hepatologists, the Program serves a national and international referral population via a comprehensive evaluation of all medical and surgical aspects of liver disease and the prompt initiation of conventional and innovative treatments. The evaluation includes a full spectrum of metabolic analysis, inflammatory processes, and state-of-the-art gene sequencing techniques to diagnose mutations known to cause clinical phenotypes, and discover mutations in new genes relevant to liver diseases. In addition to the consultation with expert hepatologists and clinical nurse specialists, the outpatient program includes the timely consultation with surgeons, pathologists, radiologists, and nutritionists with expertise in pediatric liver disease. This coordinated approach enables a thorough evaluation of the impact of the illness on the child’s well being. For children with advanced stages of liver disease, an evaluation for liver transplantation and close follow-up in the pre-transplant clinic enable the implementation of the most comprehensive treatment protocol to minimize complications, improve post-transplant course, and optimizes outcomes.

Recognizing that research is critical to improvement in child care, the Clinical and Research Staff lead patient- and laboratory studies in liver diseases. In patient studies, the staff conduct multi-center studies sponsored by the National Institutes of Health and the American Liver Foundation to advance knowledge on mechanisms of pediatric liver disease, to develop new diagnostic tests, and to perform clinical trials to explore new strategies to recover liver function and increase the short- and long-term outcomes of children with acute and chronic liver diseases. Ongoing projects include: 1) the development of the LiverChip, a new high-throughput blood test that screens for mutations in 13 genes that cause genetic liver diseases, 2) mitochondrial and immunologic diseases as causes of liver failure, 3) an ongoing trial to determine the efficacy of corticosteroids in children with biliary atresia, 4) studies to dissect the causes and develop new treatments for biliary atresia, 5) studies to discover biomarkers and new therapies for fatty liver disease, 6) identification of biomarkers of fibrosis, and 6) the development of new therapies for bile acid disorders.

In the laboratory, Research Staff use innovative models using transgenic technologies in rodents and zebrafish to study fundamental mechanisms of liver development and pathogenic basis of liver injury, repair, autoimmunity, cholestasis, steatohepatitis and tumor formation. Together, the clinical and research programs create an outstanding environment for the training of future leaders in the field via a fellowship-training program in Advanced and Transplant Hepatology.

Pancreatic Disorders

Our mission is to provide comprehensive multidisciplinary management of pancreatic disorders that strives to improve patient outcomes through focused expertise, standardization of care and clinical research. The program is led by Joseph Palermo MD PhD, Tom Lin MD, and Maisam Abu-El-Haija MD. With its inception this year, this program has already completed a survey of Cincinnati Children’s providers to better understand the variation in management of acute pancreatitis, assembled a multidisciplinary care team to evaluate and treat complex pancreatic disorders and established a REDCap database for patient registry. In addition, the program participates in the INSPPIRE consortium for pediatric pancreatitis and are one the few children’s hospitals able to offer pediatric patients with chronic pancreatitis the option of total pancreatectomy with islet autotransplantation (TPIAT).

Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group

The Pediatric Acute Liver Failure (PALF) Study Group is a NIH U01-funded consortium of 12 children’s hospitals (11 U.S. and one Canadian) whose focus is to study infants and children who develop acute liver failure. Patients with acute liver failure are gravely ill and often require liver transplantation in order to rescue the patient; despite this high morbidity and mortality, very little is known about the etiology of disease initiation or progression, or risk factors that will predict prognosis. Current goals of the PALF Study Group are to comprehensively study these patients’ biochemical and clinical management profiles and using this information, to develop models of PALF using statistical modeling techniques augmented with mechanistic models of complex biological systems to inform us of factors impacting prognosis or decision-making regarding liver transplantation.

The Pediatric Liver Care Center at Cincinnati Children’s has participated in the PALF Study Group since 2005. This past year, Cincinnati Children’s has enrolled nine patients into the study, which is the second highest enrollment of the 12 centers (total PALF Study Group enrollment for 2013 was 70 patients). Dr. Leonis is the Cincinnati Children’s site PI for this study, and has recently published an article on behalf of the PALF Study Group on chronic acetaminophen exposure in patients with PALF that was published in Pediatrics.

Pediatric Liver Transplantation

The Pediatric Liver Transplant Program, led by Kathleen Campbell, MD (medical director) continues its’ mission of advancing the care of liver transplant recipients by improving the health care delivery system, providing unparalleled clinical care, and addressing gaps in knowledge through patient-based and basic laboratory research. Our program remains one of the largest pediatric liver transplant programs in the country, with clinical outcomes at or above the national average. In addition to providing care for the most common pediatric liver disorders leading to transplantation, we are able to leverage institutional strengths in other Divisions to provide care, and the best outcomes available, to a number of patients with rare diseases and extremely complex needs, including those with advanced liver tumors and patients with primary immune defects. Clinically, the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Pediatric Liver Transplant Program has maintained its’ overall transplant volume and has continued to build expertise in transplantation for primary hepatic tumors. Since 2007, we have performed more pediatric liver transplants for primary hepatic tumors than any other program in the United States. Members of the Liver Transplant Program continue to act as leaders in national quality improvement efforts and multicenter clinical and translational research studies. These include: the Pediatric Acute Liver Failure Study Group (PALF), Medication Adherence in Children who had a Liver Transplant (MALT), Immunosuppression Withdrawal for Stable Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients (iWITH), the Studies in Pediatric Liver Transplantation (SPLIT) quality improvement community and clinical registry, the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Children (CTOT-C) project, and Impact of Everolimus on Renal Function in Pediatric Liver Transplantation.

Significant Publications

Noah TK, Lo YH, Price A, Chen G, King E, Washington MK, Aronow BJ, Shroyer NF. SPDEF functions as a colorectal tumor suppressor by inhibiting beta-catenin activity. Gastroenterology. 2013. 144:1012-1023 e6.
In this study, the authors showed that the transcription factor SPDEF, which is normally part of the cellular differentiation program in the intestine, is silenced in >80% of colorectal tumors. Using transgenic mice, they showed that absence of SPDEF increased tumor formation and progression to invasive carcinoma in several models of colorectal cancer. In complementary studies, they showed that re-expression of SPDEF could block the growth of established tumors. Finally, they discovered that SPDEF directly binds to and interferes with the activity of beta-catenin, a protein that is almost universally oncogenic in colorectal cancer. Together, these studies identify SPDEF as a new target for therapeutic intervention in colorectal cancer.
Jurickova I, Collins M, Chalk C, Seese A, Bezold R, Lake K, von Allmen D, Frischer J, Falcone R, Trapnell B, and Denson L. Pediatric Crohn Disease Patients with Stricturing Behavior Exhibit Ileal Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony Stimulating Factor Auto-antibody Production and Reduced Neutrophil Bacterial Killing and GM-CSF Bioactivity. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013 Jun;172(3):455-65.
This collaborative study between the Departments of Pathology, Surgery, and Pediatrics at Cincinnati Children's Hospital identified a novel mechanism of innate dysfunction, local intestinal production of GM-CSF auto-antibodies, in children with aggressive Crohn Disease requiring surgical resection.  This provides new insight into a medical approach based upon boosting antimicrobial responses for this sub-group of patients who are refractory to current therapies.
Lages CS, Simmons J, Chougnet CA, Miethke AG. Regulatory T cells control the CD8 adaptive immune response at the time of ductal obstruction in experimental biliary atresia. Hepatology 2012;56:219-227.
Regulatory T cells have been linked to immunologic immaturity of the newborn and its predisposition to develop biliary atresia, a life threatening blockage of the bile ducts. This report by Lages et al. elucidated mechanisms by which regulatory T cells modulate dendritic cell dependent costimulation of CD8 lymphocytes causing bile duct obstruction in experimental biliary atresia. The study identified cellular and molecular targets for future immunotherapy to block progression of neonatal bile duct injury.

Division Publications

Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Publications

  1. Abdel-Rahman SM, Amidon GL, Kaul A, Lukacova V, Vinks AA, Knipp GT. Summary of the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development–Best Pharmaceuticals for Children Act Pediatric Formulation Initiatives Workshop–Pediatric Biopharmaceutics Classification System Working Group. Clinical therapeutics. 2012; 34:S11-S24.
  2. Abu-El-Haija M, Ramachandran S, Meyerholz DK, Abu-El-Haija M, Griffin M, Giriyappa RL, Stoltz DA, Welsh MJ, McCray PB, Jr., Uc A. Pancreatic damage in fetal and newborn cystic fibrosis pigs involves the activation of inflammatory and remodeling pathways. Am J Pathol. 2012; 181:499-507.
  3. Akimova T, Kamath BM, Goebel JW, Meyers KE, Rand EB, Hawkins A, Levine MH, Bucuvalas JC, Hancock WW. Differing effects of rapamycin or calcineurin inhibitor on T-regulatory cells in pediatric liver and kidney transplant recipients. Am J Transplant. 2012; 12:3449-61.
  4. Balistreri WF. “An Editor's Editor”—Joseph Morris Garfunkel, MD (January 1, 1926-January 16, 2013). The Journal of Pediatrics. 2013; 162:666-667.
  5. Balistreri WF. Hepatitis—Do you “C” it?. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012; 161:A3.
  6. Bell SM, Zhang L, Xu Y, Besnard V, Wert SE, Shroyer N, Whitsett JA. Kruppel-like factor 5 controls villus formation and initiation of cytodifferentiation in the embryonic intestinal epithelium. Dev Biol. 2013; 375:128-39.
  7. Bramlage KS, Bansal V, Xanthakos SA, Kohli R. Fatty liver disease in children--what should one do?. Indian J Pediatr. 2013; 80 Suppl 1:S109-14.
  8. Bucuvalas J, Filipovich L, Yazigi N, Narkewicz MR, Ng V, Belle SH, Zhang S, Squires RH. Immunophenotype predicts outcome in pediatric acute liver failure. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013; 56:311-5.
  9. Cohen MB. F1000 Prime Recommendation of [Barzilay EJ et al., N Engl J Med 2013, 368(7):599-609. F1000Prime. .
  10. Cohen MB. F1000 Prime Recommendation of [Fiskerstrand T et al., N Engl J Med 2012]. F1000Prime. .
  11. Cohen MB. F1000 Prime Recommendation of [Jostins L et al., Nature 2012, 491(7422):119-24]. F1000Prime. .
  12. Cohen MB. F1000 Prime Recommendation of [Khanna S et al., Clin Infect Dis 2013]. F1000Prime. .
  13. Cohen MB. F1000 Prime Recommendation of [Tanpowpong P et al., J Pediatr 2012]. F1000Prime. .
  14. Cohen MB, Ladinsky M, Marino B. Gastroenterology. In: BS Marino, KS Fine, eds. Blueprints Pediatrics. Baltimore, Md.: Wolters Kluwer/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins; 2013:134-153.
  15. Cohran V, Cassedy A, Hawkins A, Bean J, Heubi J. Oral risedronate sodium improves bone mineral density in non-ambulatory patients: A randomized, double-blind, placebo controlled trial. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. 2013; 6:85-93.
  16. Cole CR. Preventing hidden hunger in children using micronutrient supplementation. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012; 161:777-778.
  17. Coury DL, Ashwood P, Fasano A, Fuchs G, Geraghty M, Kaul A, Mawe G, Patterson P, Jones NE. Gastrointestinal conditions in children with autism spectrum disorder: developing a research agenda. Pediatrics. 2012; 130 Suppl 2:S160-8.
  18. Cunningham NR, Lynch-Jordan A, Mezoff AG, Farrell MK, Cohen MB, Kashikar-Zuck S. Importance of addressing anxiety in youth with functional abdominal pain: suggested guidelines for physicians. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013; 56:469-74.
  19. Deboer MD, Lima AAM, Oría RB, Scharf RJ, Moore SR, Luna MA, Guerrant RL. Early childhood growth failure and the developmental origins of adult disease: Do enteric infections and malnutrition increase risk for the metabolic syndrome?. Nutrition Reviews. 2012; 70:642-653.
  20. Denson LA. Linking Genetic Variation to Phenotype: eQTL Analysis of Normal Human Ileum. Gastroenterology. 2013; 144:1339-41.
  21. Denson LA, Long MD, McGovern DP, Kugathasan S, Wu GD, Young VB, Pizarro TT, de Zoeten EF, Stappenbeck TS, Plevy SE, Abraham C, Nusrat A, Jobin C, McCole DF, Siegel CA, Higgins PD, Herfarth HH, Hyams J, Sandborn WJ, Loftus EV, Jr., Kappelman MD, Lewis JD, Parkos CA, Sartor RB. Challenges in IBD research: update on progress and prioritization of the CCFA's research agenda. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013; 19:677-82.
  22. Dipaola F, Bezerra JA. 50 Years ago in The Journal of Pediatrics: Persistent jaundice in infancy: Brent RL. J Pediatr 1962;61:111-44. J Pediatr. 2012; 161:164.
  23. Dykes DM, Moore SR, Polk DB, Rosen MJ, Wills ML, Morris B, Maclin JS, Nogueira J, Katz A, Hunley TE, Pugh J, Saeed S. Mycophenolate mofetil-related enterocolitis and weight loss: a pediatric case series. Case Rep Pediatr. 2012; 2012:624168.
  24. Englesbe MJ, Kelly B, Goss J, Fecteau A, Mitchell J, Andrews W, Krapohl G, Magee JC, Mazariegos G, Horslen S, Bucuvalas J. Reducing pediatric liver transplant complications: a potential roadmap for transplant quality improvement initiatives within North America. Am J Transplant. 2012; 12:2301-6.
  25. Finkbeiner SR, Zeng XL, Utama B, Atmar RL, Shroyer NF, Estes MK. Stem cell-derived human intestinal organoids as an infection model for rotaviruses. MBio. 2012; 3:e00159-00112.
  26. Franciosi JP, Hommel KA, Debrosse CW, Greenberg AB, Greenler AJ, Abonia JP, Rothenberg ME, Varni JW. Quality of life in paediatric eosinophilic oesophagitis: What is important to patients?. Child: Care, Health and Development. 2012; 38:477-483.
  27. Freed GL, Dunham KM, Moran LM, Spera L, Research Advisory Committee of the American Board of P, Balistreri W. Resident work hour changes in children's hospitals: impact on staffing patterns and workforce needs. Pediatrics. 2012; 130:700-4.
  28. Fuller MK, Faulk DM, Sundaram N, Shroyer NF, Henning SJ, Helmrath MA. Intestinal crypts reproducibly expand in culture. J Surg Res. 2012; 178:48-54.
  29. Furuta GT, Williams K, Kooros K, Kaul A, Panzer R, Coury DL, Fuchs G. Management of constipation in children and adolescents with autism spectrum disorders. Pediatrics. 2012; 130 Suppl 2:S98-105.
  30. Gaitonde S, Kohli R, Seeley R. The role of the gut hormone GLP-1 in the metabolic improvements caused by ileal transposition. J Surg Res. 2012; 178:33-9.
  31. Gandhi CR. Oxidative stress and hepatic stellate cells: A paradoxical relationship. Trends in Cell & Molecular Biology. 2012; 7:1-10.
  32. Gandhi CR. Augmenter of liver regeneration. Fibrogenesis Tissue Repair. 2012; 5:10.
  33. Garza J, Kaul A. Anorectal Malformations. In: C Fauré, C Di Lorenzo, N Thapar, eds. Pediatric Neurogastroenterology: Gastrointestinal motility and functional disorders in children. New York: Human Press; 2013:301-306.
  34. Guerrant RL, DeBoer MD, Moore SR, Scharf RJ, Lima AA. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease. Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 10:220-9.
  35. Helton ML, Balistreri WF. The Journal’s policy regarding clinical trials registration. The Journal of pediatrics. 2013; 162:437.
  36. Helton ML, Balistreri WF. The European Paediatric Association affiliation with The Journal. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012; 161:A3-A4.
  37. Helton ML, Balistreri WF, Frohna JG. Opening for Section Editor of Current Best Evidence. The Journal of Pediatrics. 2012; 161:A3.
  38. Henderson CJ, Collins MH, Abonia JP, Putnam PE, Rothenberg ME. Reply. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013; 131:243-4.
  39. Heubi JE, Guthery S. Effective Pediatric Clinical Trials in Gastrointestinal, Hepatobiliary, and Pancreatic Disease and Nutrition: Proceedings from the NASPGHAN Symposium. Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition. 2012; 55:109-117.
  40. Hicks PD, Hawthorne KM, Berseth CL, Marunycz JD, Heubi JE, Abrams SA. Total calcium absorption is similar from infant formulas with and without prebiotics and exceeds that in human milk-fed infants. BMC Pediatr. 2012; 12:118.
  41. Hilliard ME, Ernst MM, Gray WN, Saeed SA, Cortina S. Adapting pediatric psychology interventions: lessons learned in treating families from the Middle East. J Pediatr Psychol. 2012; 37:882-92.
  42. Hommel KA, Franciosi JP, Gray WN, Hente EA, Ahrens A, Rothenberg ME. Behavioral functioning and treatment adherence in pediatric eosinophilic gastrointestinal disorders. Pediatr Allergy Immunol. 2012; 23:494-9.
  43. Hommel KA, Hente E, Herzer M, Ingerski LM, Denson LA. Telehealth behavioral treatment for medication nonadherence: a pilot and feasibility study. Eur J Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2013; 25:469-73.
  44. Howarth DL, Yin C, Yeh K, Sadler KC. Defining hepatic dysfunction parameters in two models of Fatty liver disease in zebrafish larvae. Zebrafish. 2013; 10:199-210.
  45. Huang JS, Barlow SE, Quiros-Tejeira RE, Scheimann A, Skelton J, Suskind D, Tsai P, Uko V, Warolin JP, Xanthakos SA. Childhood obesity for pediatric gastroenterologists. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013; 56:99-109.
  46. Jensen MK, Campbell KM, Alonso MH, Nathan JD, Ryckman FC, Tiao GM. Management and long-term consequences of portal vein thrombosis after liver transplantation in children. Liver Transpl. 2013; 19:315-21.
  47. Jonas MM, Balistreri W, Gonzalez-Peralta RP, Haber B, Lobritto S, Mohan P, Molleston JP, Murray KF, Narkewicz MR, Rosenthal P, Schwarz KB, Barton BA, Shepherd JA, Mitchell PD, Duggan C. Pegylated interferon for chronic hepatitis C in children affects growth and body composition: results from the pediatric study of hepatitis C (PEDS-C) trial. Hepatology. 2012; 56:523-31.
  48. Jurickova I, Collins MH, Chalk C, Seese A, Bezold R, Lake K, von Allmen D, Frischer JS, Falcone RA, Trapnell BC, Denson LA. Paediatric Crohn disease patients with stricturing behaviour exhibit ileal granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) autoantibody production and reduced neutrophil bacterial killing and GM-CSF bioactivity. Clin Exp Immunol. 2013; 172:455-65.
  49. Kalkwarf HJ, Zemel BS, Yolton K, Heubi JE. Bone mineral content and density of the lumbar spine of infants and toddlers: influence of age, sex, race, growth, and human milk feeding. J Bone Miner Res. 2013; 28:206-12.
  50. Kamath BM, Yin W, Miller H, Anand R, Rand EB, Alonso E, Bucuvalas J. Outcomes of liver transplantation for patients with Alagille syndrome: the studies of pediatric liver transplantation experience. Liver Transpl. 2012; 18:940-8.
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  54. Leichtner AM, Gillis LA, Gupta S, Heubi J, Kay M, Narkewicz MR, Rider EA, Rufo PA, Sferra TJ, Teitelbaum J, Committee NT, North American Society for Pediatric G. NASPGHAN guidelines for training in pediatric gastroenterology. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013; 56 Suppl 1:S1-8.
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  57. Lin TK. Enteroscopy in the pediatric population. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2013; 15:36-40.
  58. Lin TK, Barth BA. Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography in pediatrics. Techniques in Gastrointestinal Endoscopy. 2013; 15:41-46.
  59. Lipstein EA, Lovell DJ, Denson LA, Moser DW, Saeed SA, Dodds CM, Britto MT. Parents' information needs in tumor necrosis factor-alpha inhibitor treatment decisions. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2013; 56:244-50.
  60. Lu S, Mukkada VA, Mangray S, Cleveland K, Shillingford N, Schorl C, Brodsky AS, Resnick MB. MicroRNA profiling in mucosal biopsies of eosinophilic esophagitis patients pre and post treatment with steroids and relationship with mRNA targets. PLoS One. 2012; 7:e40676.
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  63. Miethke AG, Huppert SS. Fishing for biliary atresia susceptibility genes. Gastroenterology. 2013; 144:878-81.
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  65. Modi AC, Zeller MH, Xanthakos SA, Jenkins TM, Inge TH. Adherence to vitamin supplementation following adolescent bariatric surgery. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2013; 21:E190-5.
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  74. Perman MJ, Lovell DJ, Denson LA, Farrell MK, Lucky AW. Five cases of anti-tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced psoriasis presenting with severe scalp involvement in children. Pediatr Dermatol. 2012; 29:454-9.
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  77. Qayed M, Langston A, Chiang KY, August K, Hilinski JA, Cole CR, Rogatko A, Bostick RM, Horan JT. Rifaximin for preventing acute graft-versus-host disease: impact on plasma markers of inflammation and T-cell activation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2013; 35:e149-52.
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  81. Rothenberg ME, Aceves S, Bonis PA, Collins MH, Gonsalves N, Gupta SK, Hirano I, Liacouras CA, Putnam PE, Spergel JM, Straumann A, Wershil BK, Furuta GT. Working with the US Food and Drug Administration: progress and timelines in understanding and treating patients with eosinophilic esophagitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2012; 130:617-9.
  82. Rufo PA, Denson LA, Sylvester FA, Szigethy E, Sathya P, Lu Y, Wahbeh GT, Sena LM, Faubion WA. Health supervision in the management of children and adolescents with IBD: NASPGHAN recommendations. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012; 55:93-108.
  83. Ryan KK, Kohli R, Gutierrez-Aguilar R, Gaitonde SG, Woods SC, Seeley RJ. Fibroblast growth factor-19 action in the brain reduces food intake and body weight and improves glucose tolerance in male rats. Endocrinology. 2013; 154:9-15.
  84. Salvo D, Frediani JK, Ziegler TR, Cole CR. Food group intake patterns and nutrient intake vary across low-income Hispanic and African American preschool children in Atlanta: a cross sectional study. Nutr J. 2012; 11:62.
  85. Sampaio DL, de Mattos AP, Ribeiro TC, Leite ME, Cole CR, Costa-Ribeiro H, Jr.. Zinc and other micronutrients supplementation through the use of sprinkles: impact on the occurrence of diarrhea and respiratory infections in institutionalized children. J Pediatr (Rio J). 2013; 89:286-93.
  86. Samson CM, Morgan P, Williams E, Beck L, Addie-Carson R, McIntire S, Booth A, Mendez E, Luzader C, Tomer G, Saeed S, Donovan E, Bucuvalas J, Denson LA. Improved outcomes with quality improvement interventions in pediatric inflammatory bowel disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012; 55:679-88.
  87. Setchell KD, Heubi JE, Shah S, Lavine JE, Suskind D, Al-Edreesi M, Potter C, Russell DW, O'Connell NC, Wolfe B, Jha P, Zhang W, Bove KE, Knisely AS, Hofmann AF, Rosenthal P, Bull LN. Genetic defects in bile acid conjugation cause fat-soluble vitamin deficiency. Gastroenterology. 2013; 144:945-955 e6; quiz e14-5.
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  89. Shneider BL, Abel B, Haber B, Karpen SJ, Magee JC, Romero R, Schwarz K, Bass LM, Kerkar N, Miethke AG, Rosenthal P, Turmelle Y, Robuck PR, Sokol RJ, Childhood Liver Disease R, Education N. Portal hypertension in children and young adults with biliary atresia. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012; 55:567-73.
  90. Shneider BL, Magee JC, Bezerra JA, Haber B, Karpen SJ, Raghunathan T, Rosenthal P, Schwarz K, Suchy FJ, Kerkar N, Turmelle Y, Whitington PF, Robuck PR, Sokol RJ, Childhood Liver Disease Research Education N. Efficacy of fat-soluble vitamin supplementation in infants with biliary atresia. Pediatrics. 2012; 130:e607-14.
  91. Squires JE, Sisk RA, Balistreri WF, Kohli R. Isolated unilateral cytomegalovirus retinitis: a rare long-term complication after pediatric liver transplantation. Pediatr Transplant. 2013; 17:E16-9.
  92. Squires RH, Dhawan A, Alonso E, Narkewicz MR, Shneider BL, Rodriguez-Baez N, Olio DD, Karpen S, Bucuvalas J, Lobritto S, Rand E, Rosenthal P, Horslen S, Ng V, Subbarao G, Kerkar N, Rudnick D, Lopez MJ, Schwarz K, Romero R, Elisofon S, Doo E, Robuck PR, Lawlor S, Belle SH. Intravenous N-acetylcysteine in pediatric patients with nonacetaminophen acute liver failure: a placebo-controlled clinical trial. Hepatology. 2013; 57:1542-9.
  93. Squires RH, Duggan C, Teitelbaum DH, Wales PW, Balint J, Venick R, Rhee S, Sudan D, Mercer D, Martinez JA, Carter BA, Soden J, Horslen S, Rudolph JA, Kocoshis S, Superina R, Lawlor S, Haller T, Kurs-Lasky M, Belle SH, Pediatric Intestinal Failure C. Natural history of pediatric intestinal failure: initial report from the Pediatric Intestinal Failure Consortium. J Pediatr. 2012; 161:723-8 e2.
  94. Stefater MA, Kohli R, Inge TH. Advances in the surgical treatment of morbid obesity. Mol Aspects Med. 2013; 34:84-94.
  95. Sumpter TL, Dangi A, Matta BM, Huang C, Stolz DB, Vodovotz Y, Thomson AW, Gandhi CR. Hepatic stellate cells undermine the allostimulatory function of liver myeloid dendritic cells via STAT3-dependent induction of IDO. J Immunol. 2012; 189:3848-58.
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  98. Vodovotz Y, Prelich J, Lagoa C, Barclay D, Zamora R, Murase N, Gandhi CR. Augmenter of Liver Regeneration (ALR) Is a Novel Biomarker of Hepatocellular Stress/Inflammation: In Vitro, In Vivo and In Silico Studies. Molecular Medicine. 2012; 18:1421.
  99. Waddell A, Ahrens R, Tsai YT, Sherrill JD, Denson LA, Steinbrecher KA, Hogan SP. Intestinal CCL11 and eosinophilic inflammation is regulated by myeloid cell-specific RelA/p65 in mice. J Immunol. 2013; 190:4773-85.
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  101. Walter TJ, Sparks EE, Huppert SS. 3-dimensional resin casting and imaging of mouse portal vein or intrahepatic bile duct system. J Vis Exp. 2012; (68):e4272.
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  103. Willson TA, Jurickova I, Collins M, Denson LA. Deletion of intestinal epithelial cell STAT3 promotes T-lymphocyte STAT3 activation and chronic colitis following acute dextran sodium sulfate injury in mice. Inflamm Bowel Dis. 2013; 19:512-25.
  104. Willson TA, Kuhn BR, Jurickova I, Gerad S, Moon D, Bonkowski E, Carey R, Collins MH, Xu H, Jegga AG, Guthery SL, Denson LA. STAT3 genotypic variation and cellular STAT3 activation and colon leukocyte recruitment in pediatric Crohn disease. J Pediatr Gastroenterol Nutr. 2012; 55:32-43.
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Faculty, Staff, and Trainees

Faculty Members

Mitchell B Cohen, MD, Professor
Leadership Gastroenterology Endowed Chair; Vice-Chair of Pediatrics for Clinical Affairs; Director, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; Associate Director, Digestive Health Center
Research Interests Diarrheal Diseases
Maisam Abu-El-Haija, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Pancreatitis and Cystic Fibrosis
William F Balistreri, MD, Professor
Leadership Dorothy M.M. Kersten Endowed Chair; Director Emeritus, Pediatric Liver Care Center; Medical Director Emeritus, Liver Transplantation; Program Director, Advanced Hepatology Fellowship; Editor, Journal of Pediatrics
Research Interests Chronic Liver Disease
Jorge A Bezerra, MD, Professor
Leadership William and Rebecca Balistreri Chair in Pediatric Hepatology; Director of Research, Division of Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition; Director, Biliary Atresia Center; Director, Digestive Health Center; Medical Director, Pediatric Liver Care Center; Director, Trustee and Procter Scholar Award Program
Research Interests Biliary Atresia and Chronic Liver Disease
John C Bucuvalas, MD, Professor
Leadership Endowed Chair in Pediatric Transplant Hepatology; Director, Integrated Solid Organ Transplant Center; Editorial Board, Hepatology; Associate Editor, Clinical Liver Disease; Associate Medical Director, Pediatric Liver Care Center
Research Interests Liver Failure and Liver Transplantation
Kathleen M Campbell, MD, Assistant Professor
Leadership Medical Director, Pediatric Liver Transplant Program
Research Interests Pediatric Liver Transplantation, Post-transplant Renal Dysfunction, Liver Disease Associated With Congenital Heart Disease
Conrad R Cole, MD, Associate Professor
Leadership Medical Director, Intestinal Rehabilitation Program / Intestinal Care Center
Research Interests Intestinal Failure
Lee A Denson, MD, Associate Professor
Leadership M. Susan Moyer Chair in Pediatric IBD; Director, Schubert-Martin Pediatric IBD Center
Research Interests Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Dana "Chelly" Dykes, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Inflammatory Bowel Disease, Clinical and Quality Improvement Research
Michael K Farrell, MD, Professor
Leadership Chief of Staff
Research Interests Nutrition
Shekhar Gandhi, PhD, Professor
Research Interests Liver Transplantation Immunology, Liver Regeneration, Hepatic Stellate Cells
Jose Garza, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Neurogastroenterological Disorders
Xiaonan Han, PhD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
James E Heubi, MD, Professor
Leadership Associate Chair for Clinical Investigation of Pediatrics; Associate Dean for Clinical and Translational Research; Co-Director, Center of Clinical and Translational Science & Training
Research Interests Chronic Liver Disease
Stacey Huppert, PhD, Associate Professor
Research Interests Hepatic Development and Regeneration
Ajay Kaul, MD, Professor
Leadership Director, Neurogastroenterology and Motility Disorders Program; Director, GI Operations at Liberty Campus
Research Interests Intestinal Motility Disorders
Samuel A Kocoshis, MD, Professor
Leadership Medical Director, Pediatric Nutritional and Intestinal Care Center; Medical Director, Small Bowel Transplantation Program
Research Interests Intestinal Failure and Intestinal Transplantation
Rohit Kohli, MD, Associate Professor
Leadership Medical Director, Complex Surgery and Transplant Inpatient Unit; Co-Director, Steatohepatitis Center
Research Interests Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Mike A Leonis, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor
Leadership Director, GI Fellowship Program
Research Interests Liver Failure and Liver Transplantation; Liver Tumors
Tom K Lin, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Pancreatitis and Other Pancreas Disorders, Pancreaticobiliary Disorders, Therapeutic Endoscopy
Adam G Mezoff, MD, Professor
Leadership Associate Medical Director, Pediatric Nutritional and Intestinal Care Center; Clinical Director for Gastroenterology
Research Interests Intestinal Failure and Intestinal Transplantation
Alexander Miethke, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Biliary Atresia and Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis
Sean Moore, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Diarrheal Diseases and International Health
Vincent Mukkada, MD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders and Pediatric Feeding Disorders
Joseph Palermo, MD, PhD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Disorders of the Bile Ducts
Scott Pentiuk, MD, Assistant Professor
Leadership Associate Clinical Director, GI; Associate Medical Director, A4S; Associate Director, Fellowship Program
Research Interests Feeding Disorders; Medical Education
Philip E Putnam, MD, Professor
Leadership Director, Endoscopy Services; Medical Director, Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders
Research Interests Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders
Shehzad A Saeed, MD, Associate Professor
Leadership Clinical Director, GI Service; Medical Director, A4S; Clinical Director of the Schubert-Martin IBD Center
Research Interests Inflammatory Bowel Disease
Pranav Shivakumar, PhD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Biliary Atresia
Noah Shroyer, PhD, Associate Professor
Research Interests Intestinal Development
Kris Steinbrecher, PhD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Diarrheal diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
Cynthia C Wetzel, PhD, Assistant Professor
Leadership Program Manager, Digestive Health Center; Program Manager, Trustee and Procter Scholar Award Program
Research Interests Research Administration
Stavra Xanthakos, MD, Associate Professor
Leadership Medical Director, Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens; Co-Director, Steatohepatitis Center; Physician Leader for the Clinical Research Coordinators
Research Interests Obesity; Non-alcoholic Steatohepatitis
Chunyue Yin, PhD, Assistant Professor
Research Interests Liver Biology

Joint Appointment Faculty Members

Lin Fei, PhD, Associate Professor (Biostatistics and Epidemiology)


  • Frank Dipaola, MD, PL-7, Vanderbilt Children's Hospital
  • Dana Dykes, MD, PL-7, Children's Hospital at UAB
  • Kristin Bramlage, MD, PL-7, NS-LIJ Health System
  • Monique Choquette, MD, PL-6, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
  • Phillip Minar, MD, PL-6, Medical College of Wisconsin
  • George Zacur, MD, PL-6, University of Miami/Jackson Memorial Hospital
  • Yael Haberman Ziv, MD, PL-5, Tel Hashomer Medical Center, Tel Hashomer, Ramat Gan, Israel
  • Alexandra Menchise, MD, PL-5, University of South Florida College of Medicine, Tampa
  • James Squires, MD, PL-5, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center
  • Sandra Wright, MD, PL-5, University of Alabama at Birmingham
  • David Galloway, MD, PL-4, Phoenix Children’s Hospital Maricopa Medical Center
  • Karla Hicks, MD, PL-4, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital
  • Ethan Mezoff, MD, PL-4, Children’s National Medical Center
  • Flora Szabo, MD, PL-4, University of Kentucky
  • Kazuhiko Bessho, MD, PhD, Osaka University, Japan
  • Bridgitte Donahue, BS, Miami University, Ohio
  • Ingrid Jurickova, MD, Second Medical Faculty, Charles University, Prague, Czech Republic
  • Jun Li, MD, PhD, Beijing Medical University and Chinese Academy of Medical Science and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China
  • Yuan-Huan Lo, BS, MS, Taiwan
  • Andriy Myronovych, MD, PhD, University of Tsukuba, Tsukuba, Ibaraki, Japan
  • Taeko Noah, PhD, University of Nevada, Reno
  • Celine Silva-Lages, PhD, University Paris Diderot, Paris 7, Paris, France

Division Collaboration

Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology » Kevin A. Hommel, PhD

Disease activity, behavioral dysfunction, and health-related quality of life in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease - Lee A. Denson, MD

Treatment adherence in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease: the collective impact of barriers to adherence and anxiety/depressive symptoms - Lee A. Denson, MD

Individually tailored treatment of medication nonadherence - Lee A. Denson, MD

The Utility of Psychosocial Screening Measures for Referral to Psychological Services in Children Diagnosed with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD)- Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Telehealth Enhancement of Adherence to Medication in Pediatric IBD - (TEAM Study) - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

PedsQL Gastrointestinal symptoms module for pediatric patients with gastrointestinal disorders: field test- Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Longitudinal examination of adherence and disease severity in IBD (LEAD study) - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Pulmonary Biology » Bruce C. Trapnell, MD

Granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor blockade promotes CCR9+ lymphocyte expansion in Nod2 deficient mice - Xiaonan Han, PhD; Lee A. Denson, MD

Innate dysfunction promotes linear growth failure in pediatric Crohn's disease and growth hormone resistance in murine ileitis - Lee A Denson, MD

Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology » Shanna M. Guilfoyle, PhD and Kevin A. Hommel, PhD

Paediatric parenting stress in inflammatory bowel disease: application of the pediatric inventory for parents - Lee A. Denson, MD

Evaluation of a group-based behavioral intervention to promote adherence in adolescents with inflammatory bowel disease - Lee A. Denson, MD

Biomedical Informatics; Biostatistics and Epidemiology » Bruce Aronow, PhD and Eileen C. King, PhD
Differentiation factors as tumor suppressors - Noah F. Shroyer, PhD
Neonatology and Pulmonary Biology; Developmental Biology » Jeffrey A. Whitsett, MD and James M. Wells, PhD
KLF5 regulation of intestinal development and stem cell homeostasis - Noah F. Shroyer, PhD
Developmental Biology » James M. Wells, PhD
Human endocrine cell development - Noah F. Shroyer, PhD
Developmental Biology; Pediatric Surgery » James M. Wells, PhD and Michael A. Helmrath, MD
In vitro organoid models of the gastrointestinal tract - Noah F. Shroyer, PhD
Developmental Biology; Pediatric Surgery; Allergy and Immunology; Pulmonary Biology » James M. Wells, PhD, Michael A .Helmrath, MD, Simon P. Hogan, PhD, and John P. Clancy, MD
Intestinal organoid models of cystic fibrosis - Noah F. Shroyer, PhD
Hematology/Oncology » Joseph S. Palumbo, MD
Hemostatic Factors in colitis and colitis-associated colon cancer - Kris A. Steinbrecher, PhD
Allergy and Immunology » Simon P. Hogan, PhD

Pathogenic role of the macrophage in ulcerative colitis - Kris A. Steinbrecher, PhD

Effects of weanling undernutrition on intestinal barrier function in mice - Sean R. Moore, MD

Pediatric Surgery; Developmental Biology » Michael A. Helmrath, MD, James M. Wells, PhD, and Christopher N. Mayhew, PhD

Regulation of adult stem cell homeostatic response to inflammatory injury - Xiaonan Han, PhD

Development of somatic cell therapy for inflammation-induced gut barrier dysfunction - Xiaonan Han, PhD

Behavioral Medicine and Clinical Psychology » Yelena Wu, PhD and Sandra Cortina, PhD
Psychosocial risk factors associated with non-adherence in small bowel transplant recipients - Samuel A. Kocoshis, MD
Clinical Pharmacology » Sander A. Vinks, PharmD, PhD, FCP
Gastrointestinal metabolism of rapamycin in children - Samuel A. Kocoshis, MD
Pediatric Surgery » Jaimie D. Nathan, MD
Role of memory T cells in acute cellular rejection after small bowel transplant. - Samuel A. Kocoshis, MD
Biomedical Informatics » Bruce Aronow, PhD and Anil Jegga, DVM, MRes

mputational science and systems biology in Pediatric Digestive Disease: Bioinformatics Core of the Digestive Health Center - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Molecular phenotypes of biliary atresia – Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Genetic synergy as causes of chronic liver diseases in children - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Developmental Biology » S. Steven Potter, MD, Aaron M. Zorn, PhD, and James M. Wells, PhD

Embryogenesis and tissue organoids in Pediatric Digestive Disease: The Digestive Health Center – Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Development and function of the neonatal biliary system - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Pathology » David .P Witte, MD, Kumar Shanmukhappa, DVM, Rachel Sheridan, MD, and Kevin E. Bove, MD

Pathobiology of Pediatric Digestive Disease: Integrative Morphology Core of the Digestive Health Center - Jorge A Bezerra, MD

Mechanisms of hepatic tumorigenesis - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Molecular staging of liver injury in biliary atresia - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Cellular and Molecular Immunology » Claire A. Chougnet, PhD, Kasper Hoebe, PhD, and Jochen Mattner, MD, PhD

The neonatal immune system and pathogenesis of biliary atresia - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Liver disease modeling through in vivo mutagenesis - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Mechanisms of auto-immune liver disease - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Pediatric Surgery » Gregory M. Tiao, MD and Jaimie D. Nathan, MD

Mechanisms of virus-induced biliary atresia - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Gut-biliary axis and pathogenesis of cholangiopathies - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD

Allergy and Immunology » William M. Ridgway, MD, PhD
Mechanisms of auto-immune liver disease - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD
Cellular and Molecular Physiology » Marshall Montrose, PhD
In vivo cell monitoring of the digestive system: Integrative Morphology Core - Jorge A. Bezerra, MD
Pathology; Allergy and Immunology; Psychology; Human Genetics; Rheumatology; Otorhinolaryngology; Neurology; Endocrinology; Cardiology; Pediatric Surgery » CCED Team (Cincinnati Center for Eosinophilic Disorders), Margaret H. Collins, MD, and Marc E. Rothenberg, MD, PhD
Multidisciplinary evaluation and treatment of children and adults who have Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disorders - Philip E. Putnam, MD; Vincent Mukkada, MD
Pulmonary; Otolaryngology; Social Work; Interdisciplinary Feeding Team; Speech and Language Pathology; Pediatric Surgery » ADSC Team (Aero Digestive Sleep Center), Robert E. Wood, PhD, MD, R. Paul Boesch, DO, Robin T. Cotton, MD, Michael J. Rutter, MD, Alessandro de Alarcon, MD, J. Paul Willging, MD, Daniel von Allmen, MD, Thomas H. Inge, MD, PhD, and Victor F. Garcia, MD
Evaluation and treatment of children who have complex airway disorders - Philip E. Putnam, MD; Vincent Mukkada, MD
Otolaryngology; Human Genetics; Speech Therapy; Occupational Therapy; Social Work; Nutrition » Interdisciplinary Feeding Team
Multi-disciplinary team provides comprehensive evaluation of children with swallowing/feeding disorders - Scott P. Pentiuk, MD
Infectious Diseases » Monica Malone McNeal, MS
Murine models of environmental enteropathy and effects on oral rotavirus vaccine immunogenicity - Sean R. Moore, MD
Pediatric Surgery » Michael A. Helmrath, MD
IGF-1 effects in mouse models of undernutrition - Sean R. Moore, MD
Pathology » Kevin E. Bove, MD

Mitochondrial ultrastructure changes in NASH - Rohit Kohli, MD; Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Bile acid synthetic defect pathology - James E. Heubi, MD

Pediatric Surgery » Thomas H. Inge, MD and Todd M. Jenkins, PhD

Biological determinants of steatohepatitis - Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Teen LABS U01- Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Surgical Weight Loss Program for Teens - Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Endocrinology » Nancy A. Crimmins, MD
NAFLD in Youth with Type 2 diabetes: An Important but Under-Recognized Co-Morbidity - Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD
Cardiology » Robert M. Siegel, MD and Holly M. Ippisch, MD
Advanced Metabolic Clinic, a monthly multidisciplinary clinic for children with multiple obesity-related complications- Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD
Biostatistics and Epidemiology » Eileen C. King, PhD
Magnetic Resonance Elastography in children with chronic liver disease - Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD
Radiology » Kim M. Cecil, PhD, Daniel J. Podberesky, MD , and Suraj Serai, PhD

NASH Clinical Research Network- Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Magnetic Resonance Elastography in children with chronic liver disease- Stavra A. Xanthakos, MD

Cardiology » Bradley S. Marino, MD
The association between biochemical markers and post-Fontan cardiac index - Kathleen M. Campbell, MD
Cardiology » Bradley S. Marino, MD, Chesney Castleberry, MD, Gruschen R. Veldtman, FRCP, MBChB , and Christopher P. Learn, MD
Clinical protocol for diagnosis and management of liver disease in patients post-Fontan palliation - Kathleen M. Campbell, MD
Radiology » Daniel J. Podberesky, MD and Daniel B. Wallihan, MD
Utility of MR elastography in diagnosing and grading hepatic fibrosis - Kathleen M. Campbell, MD
Allergy and Immunology » Senad Divanovic, PhD

The role of IL-17 in NASH - Rohit Kohli, MD

Examine mitochondrial dysfunction due to ALR deficiency - C. Shekhar Gandhi, PhD

Mass Spectrometry Laboratory » Kenneth D. Setchell, PhD

Bile acids in animal models of bariatric surgery - Rohit Kohli, MD

Inborn errors of bile acid metabolism - James E. Heubi, MD

Pathology » Lili Miles, MD
Hepatic histology in NASH animal models - Rohit Kohli, MD
Pathology » Michael Miles, PharmD
Coenzyme Q as a biomarker for NASH - Rohit Kohli, MD
Radiology » Kamlesh U. Kukreja, MD
Developmental Outcome of Urea Cycle Defect Liver Transplant Recipients- Rohit Kohli, MD
Neonatology; Pediatric Surgery » Andrew P. South, MD and Michael A. Helmrath, MD
Transactional and outcomes research in patients with and at risk for intestinal failure- Conrad R. Cole, MD; Samuel A. Kocoshis, MD
Pediatric Surgery; Neonatology; Biostatistics and Epidemiology » Michael A. Helmrath, MD, Andrew P. South, MD, and Eileen C. King, PhD
Efficacy of enteral glutamine in pediatric SBS - Conrad R. Cole, MD; Samuel A. Kocoshis, MD
Radiology » Alan E. Oestreich, MD
Radiologic changes in patients on prolonged parenteral nutrition receiving suboptimal micronutrients -Conrad R. Cole, MD
Pathology; Biomedical Informatics » Kenneth D. Setchell, PhD , Kevin E. Bove, MD, and Rebekah Karns, PhD
Elucidation of the interrelation between phospholipid homeostasis and immune responses in the neonatal liver.- Alexander Miethke, MD
Human Genetics; Pathology » Taosheng Huang, MD, PhD , C. Alexander Valencia, PhD, Kevin E. Bove, MD, and Rachel Sheridan, MD
Collaborative study to correlate the molecular diagnosis derived by next generation sequencing technology with clinical data and histopathology in a retrospective cohort of subjects with acute liver failure and suspected mitochondrial DNA depletion syndrome.- Alexander Miethke, MD
Molecular Immunology; Pathology » Claire A. Chougnet, PhD, Kumar Shanmukhappa, DVM, Anita Gupta, MD, and Rachel Sheridan, MD
Determination of the role of Th17 cells in progression of cholestatic liver disease in children with biliary atresia after Kasai portoenterostomy.- Alexander Miethke, MD
Pediatric Surgery » Gregory M. Tiao, MD
Review of treatment and outcomes of patients with IBD and PSC followed at Cincinnati Children’s and at Dr. v Hauner Kinderspital Munich, Germany .- Alexander Miethke, MD
Community Pediatrics » Heidi Kalkwarf, PhD
Bone disease in childhood - James E. Heubi, MD
Immunology » Lisa H. Filipovich, MD
Etiopathogenesis of pediatric acute liver failure - John C. Bucuvalas, MD
Center for Adherence and Self-Management » Dennis Drotar, PhD
Medical adherence in liver transplant recipients - John C. Bucuvalas, MD
Nephrology » Jens W. Goebel, MD and Stuart L. Goldstein, MD

Differing Effects of Rapamycin or Calcineurin Inhibitor on T-Regulatory Cells in Pediatric Liver and Kidney Transplant Recipients - John C. Bucuvalas, MD

Recognition and Prevention of Acute Kidney Injury in Hospitalized Children- John C. Bucuvalas, MD

Pediatric Surgery; Oncology; Pathology; Radiology » Gregory M. Tiao, MD, James I. Geller, MD, Anita Gupta, MD, Kevin E. Bove, MD, Kamlesh Kukreja, MD, and Alexander J. Towbin, MD
Liver Tumor Research Group - Mike A. Leonis, MD, PhD
Anderson Center for Health System Excellence » Peter Margolis, MD, PhD and Michael Seid, PhD

Developing and testing systems to support patient, physician and researcher collaboration to conduct individual "N of 1" trials - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Passive Patient Reported Outcomes (PROs): Using mobile sensing technology to measure outcomes in patients with IBD - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Evaluating the Effectiveness of Parent Activation Tools on Clinical Interactions. The E3Healthcare Study (Engaged, Empowered, Electronic) - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD

Pediatric Surgery » Jason S. Frischer, MD
Diverting ileostomy in Crohn's disease: analysis of benefits, trends, and complications in the pediatric population - Shehzad A. Saeed, MD
Radiology » Daniel J. Podberesky, MD
The ImageKids study: Developing the Pediatric Crohn's Disease Intestinal Damage Score (PECDID score)and the Pediatric MRE-Based Activity Index (P-MECAI)- Shehzad A. Saeed, MD
Infectious Diseases » David Bernstein, MD and Rebecca C. Brady, MD

Safety and Immunogenicity of a Single Oral Dose of Recombinant Double-Mutant Heat-Labile Toxin (dmLT) Derived from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) -Mitchell B. Cohen, MD

A Phase III Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled, Efficacy Trial of a Single Dose of Live Oral Cholera Vaccine Candidate, PXVX0200 CVD 103-HgR Strain, in Preventing Cholera following Challenge with Vibrio cholerae O1 El Tor Inaba 10 Days or 3 Months after Vaccination -Mitchell B. Cohen, MD

Pediatric Surgery; Pathology » Gregory M. Tiao, MD, Kevin E. Bove, MD, Rachel Sheridan, MD, and Anita Gupta, MD
Hepatic Immune Activation in Pediatric Liver Disease - Alexander G. Miethke, MD; Jorge A. Bezerra, MD; Stacey S. Huppert, PhD
Experimental Hematology and Cancer Biology » Yi Zheng, PhD
Modulating neutrophil reactive oxygen species in Inflammatory Bowel Disease - Phil Minar, MD
Radiology » Sara M. O'Hara, MD
Pediatric nomograms for the common bile duct – Tom K. Lin, MD
Pathology » Margaret H. Collins, MD
Stricture development in Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Diseases - Vincent A. Mukkada, MD
Allergy and Immunology » Marc E. Rothenberg, MD, PhD and J. Pablo Abonia, MD

New pilot therapeutic trial of losartan in patients with Eosinophilic Esophagitis -Vincent A. Mukkada, MD

Therapeutic trial of oral viscous budesonide in Eosinophilic Esophagitis - Vincent A. Mukkada, MD

Therapeutic trial of novel dietary therapy in Eosinophilic Esophagitis - Vincent A. Mukkada, MD

Grants, Contracts, and Industry Agreements

Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition Grants

Grant and Contract AwardsAnnual Direct

Bezerra, J

Biological Basis of Phenotypes & Clinical Outcomes in Biliary Atresia
R01 DK 08378109/01/09-08/31/14$213,172
Clinical Center for Cholestatic Liver Disease in Children
U01 DK 06249709/10/09-05/31/14$514,049
Bezerra, JAdministrative Core$390,868
Bezerra, JRNA Core$61,185
Heubi, JBile Acid Core$28,820
Bove, KHistopathy Core$33,176
Digestive Health Center: Bench to Bedside Research in Pediatric Digestive Disease
P30 DK 07839206/01/12-05/31/17$676,072
Bezerra, JAdministrative Core$249,416
Potter, SGene Expression Core$40,695
Mayhew, CStem Cell Core$28,261
Keddache, MSequencing Core$31,790
Witte, DIntegrative Morphology Core$78,134
Aronow, BBioinformatics Core$99,872
Bezerra, JFlow Cytometry/Luminex Core$43,954
Zheng, YPilot & Feasibility Grant$47,983
Palumbo, JPilot & Feasibility Grant$47,983
Minar, PPilot & Feasibility Grant$7,984
Immunologic Dysfunction in Biliary Atresia
R01 DK 06400802/01/13-01/31/17$266,617
JAUNDICE NEXT: A Diagnostic Tool for Cholestatic Liver Disease
R43 DK 09321407/01/12-06/30/13$46,362

Bucuvalas, J

Immunosuppression Withdrawal for Stable Pediatric Liver Transplant Recipients
U01 AI 10080707/27/12-06/30/17$104,452
Medication Adherence in Children Who Had Liver Transplant
R01 DK 08074012/22/09-06/30/14$46,106

Cohen, M / Denson, L (MPI)

Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition Training Grant
T32 DK 00772707/01/10-06/30/15$426,734

Cole, C

Efficacy of Enteral Glutamine in Reducing Bloodstream Infections in SBS Infants
R21 DK 08802709/01/11-08/31/14$166,001

Denson, L

Human IgG-Mediated Anaphylaxis
R21 AI 103816-0107/01/12-06/30/14$68,615
Innate Dysregulation and Growth Failure in Pediatric Crohn's Disease
Predicting Response to Standard Pediatric Colitis Therapy: The PROTECT Study
U01 DK 09574505/01/12-06/30/17$188,798
Risk Stratification and Identification of Immunogenetic and Microbial Markers of Complicated Disease Course
Defective 5-ASA Metabolism in Inflammatory Bowel Disease
A Multidisciplinary Human Study on the Genetic, Environmental and Microbial Interactions that Cause IBD

DiPaola, F

AASLD Advanced Transplant Hepatology Fellowship Program

Gandhi, C

Mechanisms of Alcoholic Liver Disease
R21 AA 02084605/08/13-01/31/14$111,031

Han, X

Regulation of Adult Stem Cell Homeostatic Response to Inflammatory Injury
R21 AI 10338802/04/13-01/31/15$150,720
Regulation of Intestinal Stem Cell Hemostatic Response to Injury

Heubi, J

Sterol and Isoprenoid Diseases Rare Diseases Consortium
U54 HD 06193909/29/09-07/31/14$38,384

Huppert, S

Molecular Requirements for Proliferation of Fetal and Adult Liver Progenitors
R01 DK 07864008/07/12-06/30/13$153,588

Kohli, R

Benefits of Exercise: CNS and Hepatic Mechanisms
Role of Ileum in Reducing Obesity Related Comorbidities
K08 DK 08431009/01/09-08/31/13$139,321

Miethke, A

The Role of Regulatory T Cells in Biliary Atresia
R01 DK 09500108/15/12-06/30/17$218,186
Ursodeoxycholic Acid Therapy in Pediatric Primary Sclerosing Cholangitis: A Pilot Withdrawal/Reinstitution Trial
FD 00370909/21/11-09/20/13$333

Moore, S

BAA 11-66 Biochronicity
D12 AP0000501/01/12-12/31/15$50,339
Cellular Molecular Mechanisms of Alanyl-Glutamine Oral Rehydration and Nutrition
K02 TW 00876709/16/11-07/31/16$116,070
Generate a Mouse Model of Environmental Enteropathy
Mechanisms of Alanyl-Glutamine Oral Nutrition Therapy
Novel Metabonomic Biomarkers of Gut Function and Health: Modeling Enteropathy (EE) and Field Validation

Palermo, J

Longitudinal Study of Cystic Fibrosis Liver Disease

Saeed, S

Gene Discoveries in Subjects with Crohn's Disease of African Descent
R01 DK 08769403/01/11-02/29/16$12,815

Seese, A

Anti-Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor Antibody Regulation of Neutrophil Function in Crohn's Disease
Student Fellowship Award 06/15/12-09/01/12$2,500

Shivakumar, P

Innate and Adaptive Immune Systems in Biliary Atresia
ALF Liver Scholar07/01/11-06/30/14$75,000

Shroyer, N

KLF5 Regulation of Intestinal Development and Stem Cell Homeostasis
R01 DK 09230607/05/11-06/30/16$255,378
The Role of ATOH1 as a Tumor Suppressor in Colorectal Cancer
R01 CA 14282602/23/10-01/31/15$189,199


Human Endocrine Cell Development
R01 DK 09245604/07/12-02/28/17$287,003

Xanthakos, S

Bio Determinants of Steatohepatitis after Adolescent Bariatric Surgery
K23 DK 08088807/01/08-06/30/13$163,180
Clinical Research Network in Non-Alcoholic Steatohepatitis (NASH)
U01 DK 06173208/30/09-04/30/14$170,249

Yin, C

Regulation of Hepatic Stellate Cells in Development and Alcoholic Liver Injury
K99 AA 02051405/24/13-02/28/14$82,508
Current Year Direct$5,510,637
Industry Contracts

Cole, C


Heubi, J


Kohli, R

Current Year Direct Receipts$301,624