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C. Dean Kurth, MD Anesthesiologist-in-Chief
Director, Department of Anesthesia
Professor, UC Department of Anesthesia
Neuroanesthesia; neonatal anesthesia
neurologic injury associated with congenital heart disease; non-invasive bedside technologies to monitor the brain
Boat AC, Sadhasivam S, Loepke AW, Kurth CD. Outcome for the extremely premature neonate: how far do we push the edge? Paediatr Anaesth. 2011 Jan 10. doi: 10.1111/j.1460-9592.2010.03505.x.
Boat A, Mahmoud M, Michelfelder EC, Lin E, Ngamprasertwong P, Schnell B, Kurth CD, Crombleholme TM, Sadhasivam S. Supplementing desflurane with intravenous anesthesia reduces fetal cardiac dysfunction during open fetal surgery. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Aug;20(8):748-56.
Varughese AM, Hagerman NS, Kurth CD. Quality in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Aug;20(8):684-96. Review.
Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Hosu L, Gorman KL, Wang Y, Nick TG, Jou JF, Samol N, Szabova A, Hagerman N, Hein E, Boat A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging JP, Gunter JB. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors in children and parents: development and validation of the perioperative adult child behavioral interaction scale. Anesth Analg. 2010 Apr 1;110(4):1109-15.
Kurth CD, McCann JC, Wu J, Miles L, Loepke AW. Cerebral oxygen saturation-time threshold for hypoxic-ischemic injury in piglets. Anesth Analg. 2009 Apr;108(4):1268-77.
Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Szabova A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging P, Wang Y, Nick TG, Gunter J. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors and prediction of perioperative outcomes. Anesth Analg. 2009 Mar;108(3):822-6.
Loepke AW, Istaphanous GK, McAuliffe JJ 3rd, Miles L, Hughes EA, McCann JC, Harlow KE, Kurth CD, Williams MT, Vorhees CV, Danzer SC. The effects of neonatal isoflurane exposure in mice on brain cell viability, adult behavior, learning, and memory. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jan;108(1):90-104.
Robinson MB, Crombleholme TM, Kurth CD. Maternal pulmonary edema during fetoscopic surgery. Anesth Analg. 2008 Dec;107(6):1978-80.
Varughese AM, Nick TG, Gunter J, Wang Y, Kurth CD. Factors predictive of poor behavioral compliance during inhaled induction in children. Anesth Analg. 2008 Aug;107(2):413-21.
Nelson LA, McCann JC, Loepke AW, Wu J, Ben Dor B, Kurth CD. Development and validation of a multiwavelength spatial domain near-infrared oximeter to detect cerebral hypoxia-ischemia. J Biomed Opt. 2006 Nov-Dec;11(6):064022.
Lori A. Aronson, MD Staff Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist, an educator and a mentor. She is the Director of the Advanced Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship and a leader of anesthesia resident, fellow, and staff education throughout her career. She currently leads and manages a pediatric anesthesia board review lecture series in the department and at national level.
Associate Professor, UC Department of Anesthesia
Cardiac anesthesia; regional anesthesia; anesthesia for airway surgery
Dr. Aronson's practice interests include pediatric cardiac and regional anesthesia. She is also interested in the role of antifibrinolytics for large blood loss cases.
Dr. Aronson is Cincinnati Children's Anesthesia Resident Education Coordinator and is actively involved in resident and fellow education.
MD: University of Illinois, Chicago, IL, 1994.
Residency: Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC, 2000.
Residency: Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 1997.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesiology, University of North Carolina Hospitals, Chapel Hill, NC.
Certification: Pediatrics, 1997; Anesthesiology, 2001; Cardiac Anesthesia.
Lin EP, Aronson LA. Successful resuscitation of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in a neonate. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Oct;20(10):955-7.
Aronson, LA; Spaeth, J.P.: Frontiers in Pediatric Anesthesia: Cardiac Anesthesia. International Anesthesiology Clinics: Frontiers in Pediatric Anesthesiology. Winter 2006; 44(1):33-49.
Aronson, LA; Dent, C.L.: Postoperative Respiratory Function and Its Management. Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia. 2005.
Aronson LA. Pediatrics and Neonatology: Hypoxemia. Complications in Anesthesia. Ed: John L Atlee, 2nd ed, 2007.
Anne Boat, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and director of Fetal Anesthesia. Her academic interests include education and research in fetal anesthesia and quality improvement in pediatric anesthesia. Anne is also the patient/family experience officer for Cincinnati Children’s. She is responsible for the patient/family experience quality improvement work and patient experience survey results.
Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Fetal surgery; liver transplantation
MD: University of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill, NC.
Residency: Anesthesia and OB-GYN, University Hospital, Cincinnati, OH.
Fellowship: Pediatric Clinical Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
Veronica O. Busso, MD
is a staff pediatric anesthesiologist whose specialties include general anesthesia, radiology based anesthesia, and intra-operative neuromonitoring. She is currently working with the Craniofacial Collaboration and Deep Brain Stimulation outcomes focus groups with a desire to improve clinical outcomes in these patient populations. In addition, she is interested in the use of intra-operative neuoromonitoring to better understand epilepsy.
Assistant Professor, UC Department of Anesthesia
BA: Wellesley College, Wellesley, MA.
MD: University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey – New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ.
Internship: Jersey City Medical Center – Mount Sinai Hospital, Jersey City, NJ.
Residency: Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, MD.
Fellowship: Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 2012.
Vidya Chidambaran, MD Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
MBBS: Medicine,Bangalore Medical College, India, 1997
MD: Anesthesiology, Kasturba Medical College, India, 1998-2001
Internship: Anesthesiology, Jackson Memorial Hospital, Miami, Florida, 2003-2004
Residency: Anesthesiology, Brookdale University Hospital, Brooklyn, New York, 2004-2007
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Johns Hopkins Hospital, Baltimore, Maryland, 2007-2008
S Sadhasivam, T Fukuda, V Chidambaran, T Mizuno, R Venkatasubramanian, P Ngamprasertwong, V Olbrecht, H Esslinger, A A Vinks. Organic cation Transporter 1 Genetic Variants contribute to decreased Morphine Clearances in Caucasian children. (Accepted for publication, Pharmacogenomics 2013)
V Chidambaran, S Sadhasivam, J Diepstraten, H Esslinger, S Cox, B M Schnell, P Samuels, T Inge, A A Vinks, C A Knibbe. Evaluation of propofol anesthesia in morbidly obese children and adolescents. BMC Anesthesiology 2013, 13:8.
Chidambaran V, Gentry C, Ajuba-Iwuji C, Sponsellar PD, Ain M, Lin E, Zhang X, Klaus SA, Njoku DB. Retrospective Identification of New Risk Factors for Surgical Site Infections in Cerebral Palsy Patients Following Spine Surgery. Anesth Analg. 2013 May 17. [Epub ahead of print] PMID: 23687234
Chidambaran V, Mahmoud M, Sadhasivam S. Risk for Peroneal Nerve Injury After Femur Osteosarcoma Resection: Is regional analgesia safe?Journal of clinical anesthesia. 12/2012; DOI:10.1016/j.jclinane.2012.06.013
Sadhasivam S and Chidambaran V. Pharmacogenomics of Opioids and Perioperative Pain Management. Pharmacogenomics. 11/2012; 13(15):1719-40. 3.97
V Chidambaran, S Sadhasivam. Pediatric Acute and Surgical Pain Management: Recent Advances and Future Perspectives. "Contemporary Topics in Pediatric Anesthesiology" in International Anesthesiology Clinics 2012 Fall; 50(4):66-82.
Sadhasivam S, Krekels E, Chidambaran V, Esslinger H, Zhang K, Fukuda T, Vinks AA Morphine Clearance in Children: Does Race or Genetics Matter?Journal of opioid management 07/2012; 8(4):217-226. 2012.
Chidambaran V, Rosing J, Soler X, Sadhasivam S Muscle Trauma from Tourniquet (Mis)Use. Anesthesiology, July 2012 - Volume 117 - Issue 1 - p 179.- 5.36. 2012.
Diepstraten J, Chidambaran V, Sadhasivam S, Esslinger H, Cox S, Inge T, Knibbe CAJ, Vinks AA Propofol Clearance in Morbidly Obese Children and Adolescents. Clin Pharmacokinet 06/2012; 51 (8): 543-551,- 5.40. 2012.
Sadhasivam S, Chidambaran V, Ngamprasertwong P, Esslinger H, Prows C, Zhang X, Martin LJ, McAuliffe J. Race and Unequal Burden of Perioperative Pain and Opioid Related Adverse Effects in African-American and Caucasian Children. Pediatrics. 04/2012;129:832–838 – 4.47. 2012.
Andrew J. Costandi, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist who has academic interests in improving medical education of residents and fellows. His clinical interests include regional analgesia, pediatric pain management, anesthesia for fetal and transplant surgery.
Regional anesthesia; acute perioperative and chronic medical pain management; residents and fellows education
MD: University of Cairo, Cairo, Egypt, 1996-1993.
Internship: Transitional, University of Cairo Hospitals, Cairo, Egypt, 2003-2004.
Residency: Pediatrics, National Research Center, Cairo, Egypt, 2004-2007.
Internship: Surgery, Brookdale University Hospital, Brooklyn, NY, 2007-2008.
Residency: Anesthesia, Brookdale and Staten Island University Hospitals, NY, 2008-2011.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, University of Pennsylvania, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, 2011-2012.
Certification: ACLS, PALS, ATLS, 2011-2015.
Steve C. Danzer, PhD
Associate Professor, Division of Neurobiology
Epilepsy; autism; neurodevelopmental disease
Visit the Danzer Lab.
Postdoctoral Research: Duke University, Durham, NC.
Pun RYK, Rolle IJ, LaSarge CL, Hosford BE, Rosen JM, Uhl JD, Schmeltzer SN, Faulkner C, Bronson SL, Murphy BL, Richards DA, Holland KD, SC Danzer. Excessive Activation of mTOR in Postnatally Generated Granule Cells Is Sufficient to Cause Epilepsy. Neuron. 2012;75(6):1022-34.
Castro OW, Santos VR, Pun RYK, McKlveen JM, Batie M, Holland KD, Gardner M, Garcia-Cairasco N, Herman JP, SC Danzer. Impact of corticosterone treatment on spontaneous seizure frequency and epileptiform activity in mice with chronic epilepsy. PLoS One. 2012;7(9):e46044.
Murphy BL, Hofacer RD, Faulkner CN, Loepke AW and SC Danzer. Abnormalities of granule cell dendritic structure are a prominent feature of the intrahippocampal kainic acid model of epilepsy despite reduced post-injury neurogenesis. Epilepsia. 2012;53 (5):908-921.
Danzer SC. Depression, stress, epilepsy and adult neurogenesis. Experimental Neurology. 2012;233(1):22-32.
Santos VR, Wagner de Castro O, Pun RYK, Hester MS, Murphy BL, Loepke AW, Garcia-Cairasco N and SC Danzer. Contributions of mature granule cells to structural plasticity in temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuroscience. 2011;197:348-57.
Murphy BL and SC Danzer. Somatic translocation: a novel mechanism of granule cell dendritic dysmorphogenesis and dispersion. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31(8):2959-64.
Murphy BL, Pun RY, Yin H, Faulkner CR, Loepke AW and SC Danzer. Heterogeneous integration of adult-generated granule cells into the epileptic brain. Journal of Neuroscience. 2011;31(1):105-17.
McAuliffe JJ, Bronson SL, Hester MS, Murphy BL, Dahlquist-Topalá R, Richards DA and SC Danzer. Altered patterning of dentate granule cell mossy fiber inputs onto CA3 pyramidal cells in limbic epilepsy. Hippocampus. 2011 Jan;21(1):93-107.
Danzer SC. Postnatal and adult neurogenesis in the development of human disease. Neuroscientist. ct;14(5):446-58. Review. 2008.
Walter C, Murphy BL, Pun RYK, Spieles-Engemann AL and SC Danzer. Pilocarpine-induced seizures cause selective time-dependent changes to adult-generated hippocampal dentate granule cells. Journal of Neuroscience. 2007 Jul;27(28):7541-52.
Contributions of aberrant granule cell integration to the development of epilepsy. Principal Investigator. National Institute of Health. 2009-14. 1R01-NS-062806.
Selective disruption of hippocampal dentate granule cells in autism: impact of PTEN deletion. Principal Investigator. National Institute of Health. 2009-14. #1R01-NS-065020-01.
Hilary A. Flint, DO Pediatrician, Palliative Medicine Specialist
is a pediatrician that specializes in palliative medicine, pain and symptom management as well as the care for medically fragile children. Her primary research interest is developing palliative medicine educational interventions for pediatric residents and fellows which focus on training medical learners to communicate effectively with patients and families as well as how to care for patients with serious illness.
Pediatrician, Palliative Medicine Specialist
Palliative medicine; end of life care; care of children with complex medical needs; pain management
Kenneth R. Goldschneider, MD, FAAP Director, Pain Management Center
is interested in chronic pain in children and young adults. He is involved in several long-term studies of pain in children as well as in developing evidence-based pain care guidelines for epidermolysis bullosa. He is a founding member of the Pediatric Research Network for Pain (PRN-Pain), a collaborative organization of North American pediatric institutions dedicated to working in coordination with government and industry entities to improve pain research in children.
Director, Pain Management Center
Complex chronic pain conditions in infants, children and young adults, including those related to vascular malformations, epidermolysis bullosa and cancer.
Outcomes of pain treatment, with a focus on outpatient, chronic pain management.
Lynch-Jordan AM, Kashikar-Zuck S, Goldschneider KR. Parent perceptions of adolescent pain expression: the adolescent pain behavior questionnaire. Pain. 2010 Dec;151(3):834-42.
Goldschneider K, Lucky AW, Mellerio JE, Palisson F, del Carmen Viñuela Miranda M, Azizkhan RG. Perioperative care of patients with epidermolysis bullosa: proceedings of the 5th international symposium on epidermolysis bullosa, Santiago Chile, December 4-6, 2008. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Sep;20(9):797-804.
Goldschneider KR, Lucky AW. Pain management in epidermolysis bullosa. Dermatol Clin. 2010 Apr;28(2):273-82, ix. Review.
Meyer MJ, Goldschneider KR, Bielefeldt K, Zeltzer L, Lackner J, Keefer L. Functional abdominal pain in adolescence: a biopsychosocial phenomenon. J Pain. 2008 Nov;9(11):984-90.
Hosu L, Meyer MJ, Goldschneider KR. Cerebrospinal fluid cutaneous fistula after epidural analgesia in a child. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2008 Jan-Feb;33(1):74-6.
Goldschneider KR, Racadio JM, Weidner NJ. Celiac plexus blockade in children using a three-dimensional fluoroscopic reconstruction technique: case reports. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 Nov-Dec;32(6):510-5.
Lynch AM, Kashikar-Zuck S, Goldschneider KR, Jones BA. Sex and age differences in coping styles among children with chronic pain. J Pain Symptom Manage. 2007 Feb;33(2):208-16.
Lynch AM, Kashikar-Zuck S, Goldschneider KR, Jones BA. Psychosocial risks for disability in children with chronic back pain. J Pain. 2006 Apr;7(4):244-51.
Kashikar-Zuck S, Vaught MH, Goldschneider KR, Graham TB, Miller JC. Depression, coping, and functional disability in juvenile primary fibromyalgia syndrome. J Pain. 2002 Oct;3(5):412-9.
Kashikar-Zuck S, Goldschneider KR, Powers SW, Vaught MH, Hershey AD. Depression and functional disability in chronic pediatric pain. Clin J Pain. 2001 Dec;17(4):341-9.
Joel B. Gunter, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Hoffmann CO, Samuels PJ, Beckman E, Hein EA, Shackleford TM, Overbey E, Berlin RE, Wang Y, Nick TG, Gunter JB. Insufflation vs intubation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Sep;20(9):821-30.Mahmoud M, Radhakrishman R, Gunter J, Sadhasivam S, Schapiro A, McAuliffe J, Kurth D, Wang Y, Nick TG, Donnelly LF. Effect of increasing depth of dexmedetomidine anesthesia on upper airway morphology in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Jun;20(6):506-15. Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Hosu L, Gorman KL, Wang Y, Nick TG, Jou JF, Samol N, Szabova A, Hagerman N, Hein E, Boat A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging JP, Gunter JB. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors in children and parents: development and validation of the perioperative adult child behavioral interaction scale. Anesth Analg. 2010 Apr 1;110(4):1109-15.Mahmoud M, Gunter J, Donnelly LF, Wang Y, Nick TG, Sadhasivam S. A comparison of dexmedetomidine with propofol for magnetic resonance imaging sleep studies in children. Anesth Analg. 2009 Sep;109(3):745-53.Mahmoud M, Gunter J, Sadhasivam S. Ciné MRI airway studies in children with sleep apnea: optimal images and anesthetic challenges. Pediatr Radiol. 2009 Oct;39(10):1034-7. Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Szabova A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging P, Wang Y, Nick TG, Gunter J. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors and prediction of perioperative outcomes. Anesth Analg. 2009 Mar;108(3):822-6.Gunter JB, Ball J, Than-Win S. Preparation of the Dräger Fabius anesthesia machine for the malignant-hyperthermia susceptible patient. Anesth Analg. 2008 Dec;107(6):1936-45.
Mahmoud M, Bryan Y, Gunter J, Kreeger RN, Sadhasivam S. Anesthetic implications of undiagnosed late onset central hypoventilation syndrome in a child: from elective tonsillectomy to tracheostomy. Paediatr Anaesth. 2007 Oct;17(10):1001-5.
Cohen MB, Gunter JB. How safe is intravenous sedation with midazolam and fentanyl for pediatric gastrointestinal endoscopy? Nat Clin Pract Gastroenterol Hepatol. 2007 Oct;4(10):538-9.
Nancy S. Hagerman, MD
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and medical director of Same Day Surgery and Pre-Anesthesia Consultation Clinic. Her academic interests include outcomes related to preoperative evaluation and preparation for pediatric anesthesia, preoperative pediatric anxiety and related outcomes, and quality improvement science and its role in pediatric anesthesia.
Varughese AM, Hagerman NS, Kurth CD. Quality in pediatric anesthesia. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Aug;20(8):684-96. Review. Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Hosu L, Gorman KL, Wang Y, Nick TG, Jou JF, Samol N, Szabova A, Hagerman N, Hein E, Boat A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging JP, Gunter JB. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors in children and parents: development and validation of the perioperative adult child behavioral interaction scale. Anesth Analg. 2010 Apr 1;110(4):1109-15.
Hagerman NS. Remember That There Are Two "Neos" in Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Marcucci L, Martinez E, Haut E, Slonim A, Suarez J, eds. Lippencott Williams & Wilkens. 2006 Philadelphia.
Hagerman NS. Remember That Malignant Hyperthermia May Not Have Hyperthermia in Avoiding Common ICU Errors. Marcucci L, Martinez E, Haut E, Slonim A, Suarez J, eds. Lippencott Williams & Wilkens. 2006 Philadelphia.
Elizabeth A. Hein, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Associate Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Anesthesia for airway surgery; ENT anesthesia
Hoffmann CO, Samuels PJ, Beckman E, Hein EA, Shackleford TM, Overbey E, Berlin RE, Wang Y, Nick TG, Gunter JB. Insufflation vs intubation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Sep;20(9):821-30.Sadhasivam S, Cohen LL, Hosu L, Gorman KL, Wang Y, Nick TG, Jou JF, Samol N, Szabova A, Hagerman N, Hein E, Boat A, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Willging JP, Gunter JB. Real-time assessment of perioperative behaviors in children and parents: development and validation of the perioperative adult child behavioral interaction scale. Anesth Analg. 2010 Apr 1;110(4):1109-15.Hein EA, Rutter MJ. New perspectives in pediatric airway reconstruction. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006 Winter;44(1):51-64. Review.
Clifford O. Hoffmann, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Hoffmann CO, Samuels PJ, Beckman E, Hein EA, Shackleford TM, Overbey E, Berlin RE, Wang Y, Nick TG, Gunter JB. Insufflation vs intubation during esophagogastroduodenoscopy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Sep;20(9):821-30.McConville BJ, Steichen-Asch P, Harris R, Neudorf S, Sambrano J, Lampkin B, Bailey D, Fredrick B, Hoffmann C, Woodman D. Pediatric bone marrow transplants: psychological aspects. Can J Psychiatry. 1990 Dec;35(9):769-75.
Michael P. Jankowski, PhD
is a neuroscientist with expertise in molecular biology, electrophysiology and neuroanatomy. His basic and translational research program analyzes the molecular mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain and the developmental plasticity of sensory neurons before and after peripheral injury. Specifically, the laboratory focuses on effects of inflammation and ischemia on muscle afferent sensitization, and how neonatal injuries can alter the function of sensory neurons both during development and into adulthood.
Visit the Jankowski Lab.
Assistant Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Chronic pain; neurodevelopmental diseases
Dr. Jankowski joined the faculty in the Department of Anesthesia/Division of Pain Management at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center in November of 2011. Previously, he had been awarded both pre-doctoral (2006) and postdoctoral National Research Service Awards (2008) prior to becoming faculty at the University of Pittsburgh. While a member of the Department of Neurobiology at the University of Pittsburgh, he presented several public presentations including one seminar titled, “Interfering with the Molecular Mechanisms of Pain” at the Center for Neuroscience at the University of Pittsburgh’s Annual Retreat in 2009, and another titled, ”Preparation and Delivery of siRNAs to Sensory Neurons” at the International Association for the Study of Pain’s Satellite Symposium: “Nociceptors: New Biology” in Edinburgh, Scotland in 2008.
Dr. Jankowski has also been the recent recipient of two NIH grants in 2013: one from the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (R03HD077483) and another from the National Institute of Arthritis, and Musculoskeletal and Skin Diseases (R01AR064551). He also is a Rita Allen Scholar and was recently named a Cincinnati Children's Trustee Scholar. In addition, Dr. Jankowski is on the training faculty in the graduate program in neuroscience, and in the Molecular and Developmental Biology Graduate Program. He is currently a member of the Society for Neuroscience, the International Association for the Study of Pain, the Society for Pediatric Anesthesia, and the American Pain Society.
Jankowski MP, Rau KK, Ekmann KM, Anderson CE, Koerber HR. Comprehensive phenotyping of group III and IV muscle afferents in mouse. J. Neurophys. 2013; 109: 2374-2381.
Jankowski MP, Anderson W, Anderson CE, Koerber HR. Dynamic changes in heat transducing channel TRPV1 expression regulate mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive C-fiber recruitment after axotomy and regeneration. J. Neurosci. 2012; 32: 17869-73.
Jankowski MP, Rau KK, Soneji DJ, Anderson CE, Molliver DC, Koerber HR. Purinergic receptor P2Y1 regulates polymodal C-fiber thermal sensitivity during peripheral inflammation. Pain. 2012; 153:410-9.
Li L, Rutlin M, Abraira V, Cassidy C, Jankowski MP, Luo W, Heintz N, Koerber HR, Woodbury CJ, Ginty DD. The functional organization of cutaneous low-threshold mechanosensory neurons. Cell. 2011; 147: 1615-27.
Molliver DC, Rau KK, McIlwrath SL, Jankowski MP, Koerber HR. The ADP receptor P2Y1 is necessary for normal thermal sensitivity in cutaneous polymodal nociceptors. Mol. Pain. 2011; 7: 13.
Koerber HR, McIlwrath SL, Lawson JJ, Malin SA, Anderson CE, Jankowski MP, Davis BM. Mouse cutaneous C-fibers lacking TRPV1 are sensitized to heat following peripheral inflammation. Molecular Pain. 2010; 6: 58.
Jankowski MP, Rau KK, Soneji DJ, Anderson CE, Koerber HR. Enhanced artemin/GFRa3 levels regulate mechanically insensitive, heat sensitive C-fiber recruitment after axotomy and regeneration. J. Neurosci. 2010; 30: 16272-83.
Rau KK, McIlwrath SL, Wang H, Lawson JJ, Jankowski MP, Zylka MJ, Anderson DJ, Koerber HR. Mrgprd enhances excitability in specific populations of cutaneous murine polymodal nociceptors. J. Neurosci. 2009; 29: 8612-9.
Jankowski MP, McIlwrath SL, Cornuet PK, Jing X, Salerno KM, Koerber HR, Albers KM. Sox11 transcription factor regulates peripheral nerve regeneration in the adult. Brain Res. 2009b; 1256: 43-54.
Jankowski MP, Lawson JJ, McIlwrath SL, Rau KK, Anderson CE, Albers KM, Koerber HR. Sensitization of cutaneous nociceptors following nerve transection and regeneration: Possible role of target derived neurotrophic factor signaling. J. Neurosci. 2009a; 29: 1636-47.
Mechanisms of muscle afferent sensitization after ischemia. Principal Investigator. NIH/NIAMS
Mechanisms of postnatal cutaneous afferent development during inflammation. Principal Investigator. NIH/NICHD
Developmental plasticity of cutaneous sensory neurons. Principal Investigator. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center TAPS
Molecular mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain. Principal Investigator. Rita Allen Foundation Award In Pain.
Peripheral mechanisms of musculoskeletal pain after ischemic tissue injury. Principal Investigator. International Society for the Study of Pain, Early Career Grant.
Thomas J. Kabalin, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
ENT anesthesia; anesthesia for orthopedic surgery
Michael J. Kibelbek, MD Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Procedural sedation outside the OR; education
Kibelbek MJ. Cable trapped under Dräger Fabius automatic pressure limiting valve causes inability to ventilate. Anesthesiology. 2007 Mar;106(3):639-40; author reply 640.
Kibelbek MJ, Schwartz JA, Tenedios G. Stewart smiled. Pediatrics. 1993 May;91(5):1018-9.
Kibelbek MJ. Gastric acid aspiration possible during flexible endoscopy without general anesthesia. Am J Dis Child. 1987 Feb;141(2):128-9.
Rachel A. Koll, MD
Pediatric cardiac anesthesia
MD: Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, 2007.
Residency: Anesthesia, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT, 2011.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, 2012.
Fellowship: Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, 2013.
Renee Kreeger, MD
is a pediatric anesthesiologist who specializes in anesthesia for congenital heart disease. Her other interests include anesthesia safety and quality improvement, as well as neurologic outcome after cardiac surgery. She serves as the associate safety officer for the Department of Anesthesia and is currently a co-investigator in clinical research examining neurologic monitoring during congenital cardiac surgery and its effect on outcome.
Anesthesia for congenital cardiac disease
Renee Kreeger, MD, is joining the faculty at Cincinnati Children’s after practicing as a pediatric anesthesiologist at Seattle Children’s Hospital. She has a special interest in anesthesia for congenital cardiac disease.
Kreeger, R.N. Conscious Sedation. Mont Reid Surgical Handbook. 6th ed., 2008.
Kreeger RN, Hilvano A. Anesthetic options for the parturient with a neural tube defect. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2005 Fall;43(4):65-80. Review.
Jennifer E. Lam, DO Physician
is a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist and serves as the
director of the pediatric cardiac anesthesia fellowship. She is also
responsible for staff medical education and anesthesia grand rounds. She is
very involved in fellow and resident education, providing formal lectures and
mentorship throughout the year. In addition, Jennifer sits on the hospital’s
Blood Utilization Review Committee as a representative for the department.
Assistant Professor, N/A
Assistant Professor, Division of Pediatric Anesthesia
Christopher S. Lee, MD Staff Anesthesiologist, Division of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist whose primary basic science and translational research interest is exploring the protective effects of ischemic conditioning on tissue injury, sensory transduction and pain. Secondary interests include blood product management and pediatric regional anesthesia.
Staff Anesthesiologist, Division of Anesthesia
Pediatric regional anesthesia and pain medicine; anesthesia for solid organ transplantation.
Pediatric regional anesthesia and pain medicine; Perfusion/reperfusion injury.
BS: Pennsylvania State University, State College, PA, 1997.
MD: Thomas Jefferson University- Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, 2000.
Residency: Pediatrics, St. Christopher's Hospital for Children, Philadelphia, PA, 2003; Anesthesia, Brigham & Women's Hospital, Boston, MA, 2006.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, The Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 2008.
Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, 2007.
Erica P. Lin, MD Attending Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist. As the departmental expert in ventricular assist devices, she coordinates care for our heart failure patients with implanted devices. She also facilitates VAD-training among the pediatric cardiac anesthesia division. Erica is also actively involved in fellow and resident education. Her basic research interests focus on hypoxia-ischemia and its effect on neurodevelopmental outcome.
Lin EP, Aronson LA. Successful resuscitation of bupivacaine-induced cardiotoxicity in a neonate. Paediatr Anaesth. 2010 Oct;20(10):955-7.
Propst EJ, Lin EP, Istaphanous GK, Boesch RP, Ryckman FC, Cotton RT, Rutter MJ. Management of traumatic tracheobronchial separation in a teenager using a fabricated extra-long endotracheal tube. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2009 Aug;73(8):1163-7.
Lin E. Pay scrupulous attention to eliminating air bubbles in pediatric intravenous tubing. Avoiding Common Anesthesia Errors. C Marucci. Lippincot Williams & W.
Andreas W. Loepke, MD, PhD Staff Anesthesiologist, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia
Staff Anesthesiologist, Division of Cardiac Anesthesia
Anesthesia for neonates; congenital heart surgery; single-ventricle physiology
Visit the Loepke Lab.
Andreas W. Loepke, MD, PhD, has been practicing pediatric cardiac anesthesiology since 2000, first at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, and since 2003 at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
Dr. Loepke’s research laboratory investigates the potential use of anesthetics for neurological protection during brain ischemia as well as their possible adverse effects on brain development. His research group discovered in animals that anesthetics differentially affect brain regions, dependent on the age during exposure. Related to these findings, his lab made the discovery that neurons are susceptible to the anesthetics’ toxic effects during a specifically vulnerable stage of their development.
MD: University of Dusseldorf, Germany, 1993.PhD: University of Dusseldorf, Germany, 1995.
Internship: General Surgery, Pennsylvania Hospital, Philadelphia, PA, 1996.Residency: Anesthesiology, Thomas Jefferson Medical College, Philadelphia, PA, 1999.Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia and Pediatric Cardiac Anesthesia, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 2000.Certification: Anesthesiology, 2000.Maintenance of Certification: Anesthesiology, 2010.
Hofacer RD, Deng M, Ward CG, Joseph B, Hughes EA, Jiang C, Danzer SC, Loepke AW. Cell-age specific vulnerability of neurons to anesthetic toxicity. Ann Neurol. 2013.
Istaphanous GK, Ward CG, Nan X, Hughes EA, McCann JC, McAuliffe JJ, Danzer, SC, Loepke AW. Characterization and Quantification of Isoflurane-Induced Developmental Apoptotic Cell Death In Mouse Cerebral Cortex. Anes Analg. 2013; 116(4): 845-54.
Mintz CD, Wagner M, Loepke AW. Preclinical research into the effects of anesthetics on the developing brain: promises and pitfalls. J Neurosurg Anesthesiol. 2012; 24(4): 362-7.
Istaphanous GK, Howard J, Nan X, Hughes EA, McCann JC, McAuliffe JJ, Danzer SC, Loepke AW. Comparison of the Neuroapoptotic Properties of Equipotent Anesthetic Concentrations of Desflurane, Isoflurane, or Sevoflurane in Neonatal Mice. Anesthesiology. 2011; 114(3): 578-87.
Loepke AW. Developmental Neurotoxicity of Sedatives and Anesthetics – A Concern For Neonatal and Pediatric Critical Care Medicine? Pediatr Crit Care Med. 2010; 11(2): 217-226.
McAuliffe JJ, Loepke AW, Miles L, Joseph B, Hughes E, Vorhees CV. Desflurane, Isoflurane and Sevoflurane Provide Limited Neuroprotection Against Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in a Delayed-Preconditioning Paradigm. Anesthesiology. 2009; 111(3): 533-46.
Loepke AW, Istaphanous GK, McAuliffe JJ, Miles L, Hughes EA, McCann JC, Harlow KE, Kurth CD, Williams MT, Vorhees CV, Danzer SC. The Effects of Neonatal Isoflurane Exposure in Mice on Brain Cell Viability, Adult Behavior, Learning, and Memory. Anesth Analg. 2009; 108(1): 90-104.
Loepke AW, Soriano SG. An Assessment of the Effects Of General Anesthetics on Developing Brain Structure and Neurocognitive Function. Anesth Analg. 2008; 106: 1681-1707.
Loepke AW, McCann JC, Kurth CD, McAuliffe JJ. Physiologic Effects of Isoflurane Anesthesia in Neonatal Mice. Anesth Analg. 2006; 102: 75-80.
Loepke AW, Priestley MA, Schultz SE, McCann JC, Kurth CD. Desflurane Improves Outcome After Low-Flow Cardiopulmonary Bypass in Newborn Pigs. Anesthesiology. 2002; 97: 1521-7.
Mohamed A. Mahmoud, MD Staff Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric anesthesiologist who has clinical research programs in pediatric airway morphology and neuromonitoring. His primary research interest is examining the effect of currently available anesthetic agents on the upper airway morphology in children with history of obstructive sleep apnea. Effect of anesthesia on neuromonitoring modalities is a second clinical research focus.
Spinal surgery; dexmedetomidine effects on neuromonitoring
Mohamed A. Mahmoud, MD, became a pediatric anesthesiologist in 2005. He is interested in anesthesia for orthopedic surgery, spinal surgery, radiology screening, fetal surgery and liver transplantation.
John J. McAuliffe III, MD, MBA Research Director
Director, Institute Pediatric Anesthesia
Cardiac anesthesia; neonatal anesthesia
Anesthesia on the developing brain
Istaphanous GK, Howard J, Nan X, Hughes EA, McCann JC, McAuliffe JJ, Danzer SC, Loepke AW. Comparison of the Neuroapoptotic Properties of Equipotent Anesthetic Concentrations of Desflurane, Isoflurane, or Sevoflurane in Neonatal Mice. Anesthesiology. 2011 Feb 2.
McAuliffe JJ, Bronson SL, Hester MS, Murphy BL, Dahlquist-Topalá R, Richards DA, Danzer SC. Altered patterning of dentate granule cell mossy fiber inputs onto CA3 pyramidal cells in limbic epilepsy. Hippocampus. 2011 Jan;21(1):93-107.
McAuliffe JJ, Loepke AW, Miles L, Joseph B, Hughes E, Vorhees CV. Desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane provide limited neuroprotection against neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in a delayed preconditioning paradigm. Anesthesiology. 2009 Sep;111(3):533-46.
McAuliffe JJ, Joseph B, Hughes E, Miles L, Vorhees CV. Metallothionein I,II deficient mice do not exhibit significantly worse long-term behavioral outcomes following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia: MT-I,II deficient mice have inherent behavioral impairments. Brain Res. 2008 Jan 23;1190:175-85.
McAuliffe JJ, Joseph B, Vorhees CV. Isoflurane-delayed preconditioning reduces immediate mortality and improves striatal function in adult mice after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Anesth Analg. 2007 May;104(5):1066-77, tables of contents.
Gunter JB, McAuliffe JJ, Beckman EC, Wittkugel EP, Spaeth JP, Varughese AM. A factorial study of ondansetron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone for emesis prophylaxis after adenotonsillectomy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006 Nov;16(11):1153-65.
McAuliffe JJ, Miles L, Vorhees CV. Adult neurological function following neonatal hypoxia-ischemia in a mouse model of the term neonate: water maze performance is dependent on separable cognitive and motor components. Brain Res. 2006 Nov 6;1118(1):208-21.
Loepke AW, McCann JC, Kurth CD, McAuliffe JJ. The physiologic effects of isoflurane anesthesia in neonatal mice. Anesth Analg. 2006 Jan;102(1):75-80.
Gunter JB, McAuliffe JJ, Gregg T, Weidner NJ, Varughese AM, Sweeney, DM. Continuous epidural butorphanol relieves pruritus associated with epidural morphine infusions in children. Paediatric Anaesthesia. 2000 10(2):167-172.
Mark Meyer, MD Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and palliative care physician with quality improvement research interests in opioid safety and communication. He possesses special clinical expertise in pediatric cancer pain and symptom management in life-threatening illness.
Palliative medicine; end of life care; anesthesiology; pain management
Anesthesia; pain management
Mark Meyer, MD, is a board-certified anesthesiologist who completed his residency at the Cleveland Clinic in Cleveland, Ohio.
Dr. Meyer joined the Department of Anesthesia in 2003 following his Pediatric Anesthesia Fellowship at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
Dr. Meyer is a staff anesthesiologist, as well as an attending physician in the Division of Pain Management, caring for patients with acute pain. In addition, Dr. Meyer is an attending physician for StarShine Hospice, the pediatric hospice at Cincinnati Children's.
In 2006, Dr. Meyer received his board certification from the American Board of Hospice and Palliative Medicine. He has been an integral part of the development and implementation of the Pediatric Palliative and Comfort Care Team / PACT at Cincinnati Children's.
Dr. Meyer is the PACT consulting physician, partnering with families in order to offer a range of comprehensive, family-centered care for children with chronic, complex or life-threatening conditions.
David L. Moore, MD
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and pain management physician, with interests in education of regional anesthesia and pain medicine. His research investigates use of simulation in education, relation of education to pain management outcomes, and role of anxiety and regional anesthesia on pain management outcomes.
Jacquelyn Morillo-Delerme, MD Director of Anesthesia, Liberty Campus
Director of Anesthesia, Liberty Campus
Pediatric cardiac anesthesiology
Varughese AM, Morillo-Delerme J, Kurth CD. Quality management in the delivery of pediatric anesthesia care. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006 Winter;44(1):119-39. Review.
Pornswan Ngamprasertwong, MD, MSc Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
is an anesthesiologist and physician scientist. Her research focus is in the area of fetal-neonatal anesthesia and pharmacology. Her expertise is in fetal-neonatal anesthesia and research related to pharmacokinetics-pharmacodynamics of anesthetic drugs and developmental physiology. She has participated as principle investigator and co-investigator in many pharmacokinetics and personalized medicine research at Cincinnati Children’s, using various anesthetic agents in both human and animal model.
Fetal and neonatal anesthesia; fetal and neonatal pharmacology of anesthetic agents
MD: Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand, 1998.
Anesthesiology Residency: King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand, 2002.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, 2005.
Fellowship: Cardiac Anesthesia, Children’s National Medical Center, Washington, DC, 2006.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia (under the 4 year ABA alternative pathway program), Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, OH, 2011.
MS: Translational Research, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2012.
Sherwin CM, Ngamprasertwong P, Sadhasivam S, Vinks AA. Utilization of optimal study design for maternal and fetal sheep propofol pharmacokinetics study: a preliminary study. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb;9(1):64-9.
Ngamprasertwong P, Habli M, Boat A, Lim FY, Esslinger H, Ding L, Sadhasivam S. Maternal hypotension during fetoscopic surgery: incidence and its impact on fetal survival outcome. Scientific World Journal. 2013 Oct 21;2013:709059.
Fukuda T, Chidambaran V, Mizuno T, Venkatasubramanian R, Ngamprasertwong P, Olbrecht V, Esslinger HR, Vinks AA, Sadhasivam S. Oct1 genetic variants influence the pharmacokinetics of morphine in children. Pharmacogenomics. 2013 Jul;14(10):1141-51.
Ngamprasertwong P, Michelfelder EC, Arbabi S, Choe YS, Statile C, Ding L, Boat A, Eghtesady P, Holland K, Sadhasivam S. Anesthetic techniques for fetal surgery: effects of maternal anesthesia on intraoperative fetal outcome in sheep model. Anesthesiology. 2013 Apr; 118(4):796-808.
Ngamprasertwong P, Vinks AA, Boat A. Update in fetal anesthesia for the ex-utero intrapartum (EXIT) procedure. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2012 Fall;50(4):26-40.
Sadhasivam S, Krekels EH, Chidambaran V, Esslinger HR, Ngamprasertwong P, Zhang K, Fukuda T, Vinks AA. Morphine clearance in children: does race or genetics matter? J Opioid Manag. 2012 Jul-Aug;8(4):217-26.
Sadhasivam S, Chidambaran V, Ngamprasertwong P, Esslinger HR, Prows C, Zhang X, Martin LJ, McAuliffe J. Race and unequal burden of perioperative pain and opioid related adverse effects in children. Pediatrics. 2012 May;129(5):832-8.
Chidambaran V, Ngamprasertwong P, Vinks AA, Sadhasivam S. Pharmacogenetics and anesthetic drugs. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2012 May;7(2):78-101.
Sadhasivam S, Chidambaran V, Ngamprasertwong P, Esslinger HR, Prows C, Zhang X, Martin LJ, McAuliffe J. Race and Unequal burden of perioperative pain and opioid related adverse effects in children. Pediatrics. 2012 May;129(5):832-8.
Vanessa A. Olbrecht, MD Anesthesiologist, Division of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and acute pain physician with interests in understanding opioid-induced effects on tumor biology, recurrence and metastasis and determining whether perioperative administration of narcotics influences long-term clinical outcomes in children having tumor resections. She is currently working with Dr. John Perentesis’ group in the Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute.
Anesthesiologist, Division of Anesthesia
Pediatric general anesthesia; pediatric regional anesthesia; acute pain management; clinical outcomes research
BA: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2003.
MD: The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 2007.
Internship: General Surgery, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, 2007-2008.
Residency: Anesthesia, The Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard University, Boston, MA, 2008-2011.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, 2011-2012.
Bateman BT, Olbrecht VA, Minehart RD, Schwamm LH, Leffert LR. Subarachnoid hemorrhage in pregnancy: nationwide data and institutional experience. Anesthesiology. 2012 Feb;116(2):324-333.
Olbrecht VA, Nabaweesi R, Arnold MA, Chandler N, Chang DC, McIltrot KH, Abdullah F, Paidas CN, Colombani PM. Pectus bar repair of pectus excavatum in patients with connective tissue disease. Journal of Pediatric Surgery. 2009 Sep;44(9):1812-1816.
Olbrecht VA, Arnold MA, Nabaweesi R, Chang DC, McIltrot KH, Abdullah F, Paidas CN, Colombani PM. Lorenz bar repair of pectus excavatum in the adult population: should it be done? Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2008 Aug;86(2):402-408; discussion 408-409.
Olbrecht VA, Abdullah F, Arnold MA, Nabaweesi R, Chang DC, McIltrot KH, Paidas CN, Colombani PM. Upper sternal depression following Lorenz bar repair of pectus excavatum. Pediatric Surgery International. 2008 Jul;24(7):843-846.
Pawlik TM, Olbrecht VA, Pitt HA, Gleisner AL, Choti MA, Schulick RD, Cameron JL. Primary sclerosing cholangitis: role of extrahepatic biliary resection. Journal of the American College of Surgeons.2008 May;206(5):822-830; discussion 830-832.
Olbrecht VA, Barreiro CJ, Bonde PN, Williams JA, Baumgartner WA, Gott VL, Conte JV. Clinical outcomes of noninfectious sternal dehiscence after median sternotomy. Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 2006 Sep;82(3):902-907.
Mario Patino, MD Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric anesthesiologist with a research interest in the evaluation of new innovative monitoring technology during the perioperative care of children, such as non-invasive continuous hemoglobin measurements with the use of pulse CO-oximetry and the use of acoustic technology to monitor the respiratory status of children. He also has research interest on children’s airway morphology, specifically in children with obstructive sleep apnea.
Neonatal anesthesia; liver transplantation; regional anesthesia
Perioperative outcomes in pediatric anesthesia
Dr. Mario Patino is an American Board Certified Anesthesiologist who completed his residency at the Cleveland Clinic. Dr. Patino joined as a faculty in 2008 after finishing his fellowship in Pediatric Anesthesia at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center.
Nick Pratap, MB BChir, MRCPCH, FRCA Congenital Cardiac Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
investigates the use of monitoring in the operating room and cardiac intensive care unit. The goal of his research is to improve clinical outcomes after open heart surgery in young infants. He is also working on novel ways of partnering with families to prepare their children for surgery.
Congenital Cardiac Anesthesiologist, Department of Anesthesia
Attending Cardiac Intensivist, Heart Institute
Congenital cardiac anesthesia; general pediatric anesthesia; pediatric liver transplant anesthesia; cardiac intensive care medicine
ResearchImproving outcomes after pediatric cardiac surgery; reducing surgical cancelations; improving safety in pediatric anesthesia using high-fidelity simulation training and checklists
MA (Cantab): University of Cambridge, UK, 1998.
MB BChir: University of Cambridge, UK, 1998.
Pediatric Residency: Royal College of Paediatrics and Child Health, London, UK, 2002.
Anesthesia Residency: Royal College of Anaesthetists, London, UK, 2006.
Pediatric Anesthesia Fellowship: Great Ormond Street Hospital, London, UK, 2008.
Congenital Cardiac Anesthesia Fellowship: Royal Brompton Hospital, London, UK, 2009.
Pediatric Intensive Care Fellowship: Birmingham Children's and Great Ormond Street Hospitals, UK, 2010.
Pratap JN, Varughese AM, Adler E, Kurth CD. Getting started with the model for improvement: psychology and leadership issues in quality improvement. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2013 Feb;74(2):104-8.
Pratap JN, Varughese AM, Adler E, Kurth CD. Getting started with the model for improvement: the model in practice. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2013 Jan;74(1):42-6.
Pratap JN, Varughese AM, Adler E, Kurth CD. Getting started with the model for improvement: introduction and understanding variation. Br J Hosp Med (Lond). 2012 Dec;73(12):701-5.
Pratap JN, Wilmshurst S. Anaesthetic management of children with in situ Berlin Heart EXCOR. Pediatr Anesth. 2010 Sep;20(9):812-20.
Pratap JN, McEwan AI. Failure to wean from cardiopulmonary bypass due to left atrial compression by periaortic hematoma. Anesth Analg. 2009 Jul;109(1):35-7.
Pratap JN, Harding L. Critical overfilling of a vaporizer. Eur J Anaesthesiol. 2009 Jan;26(1): 90-1.
Pratap JN, Sekhri C, Lloyd-Thomas AR. Anaesthetic management for adenotonsillectomy of a child with severe obesity due to homozygous melanocortin-4 receptor gene mutations. Paediatr Anaesth. 2009 Feb;19(2):195-6.
Pratap JN, Shankar RK, Goroszeniuk T. Co-injection of clonidine prolongs the analgesic effect of lidocaine skin infiltration by a peripheral action. Anesth Analg. 2007 Apr;104(4):982-3.
Pratap JN, Down JF. Posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome: a report of a case with atypical features. Anaesthesia. 2008 Nov;63(11):1245-8.
Pratap JN, Clements E, Levy D. Prevalence of obesity and undiagnosed glucose intolerance in a UK district general hospital day surgery unit. Practical Diabetes International. 2006 23(9):408-12.
Randomized trial of near-infrared spectroscopy to guide intraoperative and intensive care management in children’s heart surgery requiring cardiopulmonary bypass. Principal Investigator. Society of Cardiovascular Anesthesiologists/International Anesthesia Research Society. Jul 2011-Jun 2014.
Targeting family support to children coming for surgery. Principal Investigator. Place Outcomes Research Award. Jul 2014-Jun 2016.
Joseph P. Previte, MD, FAAP Director of Anesthesia Information and Communication Services
Director of Anesthesia Information and Communication Services
Fetal surgery anesthesia; liver transplant anesthesia; spine and neuro-surgery; medical information system management
Joseph Previte, MD, FAAP, performs all types of pediatric anesthesia, except cardiac. He is also part of the Fetal Anesthesia Care Team, Spine Surgery Care Team and Bariatric Team, and he is the Neurosurgery Champion for the Anesthesia department.
Dr. Previte is interested in information technology in the health care setting and manages and directs several IT projects in the Anesthesia department. He is currently directing the implementation of Centricity, a perioperative-wide (from the preoperative evaluation through the postoperative note) computerized documentation system tailored for the anesthetic care of the pediatric patient. This system will be integrated with a perioperative-wide documentation system.
Meyer M, Previte JP. Aspiration Pneumonitis in Children. Complications in Anesthesia, 2nd Edition. 2007 641-43.
Robinson M, Previte JP. Complications of EXIT Procedure. Complications in Anesthesia, 2nd Edition. 2007 607-10.
Previte JP. Information and communication system implementation in anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006 Winter;44(1):179-97. Review.
Wu J, Previte JP, Adler E, Myers T, Ball J, Gunter JB. Spontaneous ignition, explosion, and fire with sevoflurane and barium hydroxide lime. Anesthesiology. 2004 Aug;101(2):534-7.
Cook-Sather SD, Liacouras CA, Previte JP, Markakis DA, Schreiner MS. Gastric fluid measurement by blind aspiration in paediatric patients: a gastroscopic evaluation. Can J Anaesth. 1997 Feb;44(2):168-72.
John B. Rose, MD Co-Director, Inpatient Pain Rehabilitation Program
is a pediatric anesthesiologist with clinical expertise and research interest in the management of chronic pain in children and adolescents. His research interests also include quality improvement in chronic pediatric pain management and opiate safety in children.
Co-Director, Inpatient Pain Rehabilitation Program
MD: University of Pennsylvania, School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA, 1980.
Residency: Pediatrics, Children’s Hospital National Medical Center, Washington, DC; Anesthesiology, Hospital of the University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesiology & Critical Care Medicine; Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA.
Certifications: Pediatrics, 1984; Anesthesiology, 1987.
Guite JW, Logan DE, McCue R, Sherry DD, Rose JB. Parental beliefs and worries regarding adolescent chronic pain. Clinical Journal Pain. 2009;25:223-32.
Zempsky WT, Bean-Lijewski J, Kauffman RE, Koh JL, Malviya SV, Rose JB, Richards PT, Gennevois DJ. Needle-free powder lidocaine delivery system provides rapid effective analgesia for venipuncture or cannulation pain in children: randomized, double-blind Comparison of Venipuncture and Venous Cannulation Pain After Fast-Onset Needle-Free Powder Lidocaine or Placebo Treatment trial. Pediatrics. 2008 May;121(5):979-87. Ganesh A, Rose JB, Wells L, Ganley T, Gurnaney H, Maxwell LG, DiMaggio T, Milovcich K, Scollon M, Feldman JM, Cucchiaro G. Continuous peripheral nerve blockade for inpatient and outpatient postoperative analgesia in children. Anesth Analg. 2007 Nov;105(5):1234-42. Guite JW, Logan DE, Sherry DD, Rose JB. Adolescent self-perception: associations with chronic musculoskeletal pain and functional disability. J Pain. 2007 May;8(5):379-86. Harty TP, Dib-Hajj SD, Tyrrell L, Blackman R, Hisama FM, Rose JB, Waxman SG. Na(V)1.7 mutant A863P in erythromelalgia: effects of altered activation and steady-state inactivation on excitability of nociceptive dorsal root ganglion neurons. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 29;26(48):12566-75. Logan DE, Guite JW, Sherry DD, Rose JB. Adolescent-parent relationships in the context of adolescent chronic pain conditions. Clin J Pain. 2006 Jul-Aug;22(6):576-83. Cucchiaro G, Adzick SN, Rose JB, Maxwell L, Watcha M. A comparison of epidural bupivacaine-fentanyl and bupivacaine-clonidine in children undergoing the Nuss procedure. Anesth Analg. 2006 Aug;103(2):322-7. Nathan A, Rose JB, Guite JW, Hehir D, Milovcich K. Primary erythromelalgia in a child responding to intravenous lidocaine and oral mexiletine treatment. Pediatrics. 2005 Apr;115(4):e504-7. Logan DE, Rose JB. Is postoperative pain a self-fulfilling prophecy? Expectancy effects on postoperative pain and patient-controlled analgesia use among adolescent surgical patients. J Pediatr Psychol. 2005 Mar;30(2):187-96.
Senthilkumar Sadhasivam, MD, MPH
MBBS: Thanjavur Medical College, India, 1993.
MD: AIIMS, New Delhi, India, 1999.
Residency: Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Harvard University, Boston, MA.
Fellowship: Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2004.
Nancy Bard Samol, MD
Paul J. Samuels, MD Director of Education, Department of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and the Director of Education in the Department of Anesthesiology. His clinical and research interests include measurement of technical skill acquisition, pediatric obesity, and medical simulation.
Director of Education, Department of Anesthesia
Medical education; difficult airway; morbid obesity
MD: New York University School of Medicine, New York, NY, 1987.
Residency: Anesthesia, Northwestern University Medical School, Chicago, IL, 1993; Pediatrics, Children's Memorial Hospital, Chicago, IL, 1990.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Children's Memorial Hospital, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL, 1994.
Certification: Pediatrics, 1990; Anesthesiology, 1995.
Ximena Soler, MD Staff Anesthesiologist
MD: Pontificia Universidad Javeriana, Bogata, Colombia, 1997.
Internship: Penn State Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 2001.
Residency: Penn State University, M.S. Hershey Medical Center, Hershey, PA, 2003.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2004.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 2004; ECFMG, 2004; ACLS Provider, 2007; ACLS Instructor, 2007; PALS Provider, 2007; PALS Instructor, 2008.
James P. Spaeth, MD Director, Cardiac Anesthesia
is a pediatric cardiac anesthesiologist and the Director of Cardiac Anesthesia. His clinical research interests include the effect of congenital cardiac disease and cardiac surgery on neurodevelopmental outcomes, and the use of cerebral monitoring during the perioperative period. He is also involved in Quality Improvement work focused on improving the safety of pediatric anesthesia.
Director, Cardiac Anesthesia
MD: University of Virginia School of Medicine, Charlottesville, VA, 1993.
Internship: Internal Medicine, University of Virginia Medical Center, Charlottesville, VA, 1994.
Residency: Anesthesiology, University of California, San Diego Medical Center, San Diego, CA, 1997.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesiology, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, Philadelphia, PA, 1998.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 1998.
Gunter JB, McAuliffe JJ, Beckman EC, Wittkugel EP, Spaeth JP, Varughese AM. A factorial study of ondansetron, metoclopramide, and dexamethasone for emesis prophylaxis after adenotonsillectomy in children. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006 Nov;16(11):1153-65.
Dent CL, Spaeth JP, Jones BV, Schwartz SM, Glauser TA, Hallinan B, Pearl JM, Khoury PR, Kurth CD. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2006 Jan;131(1):190-7. Aronson LA, Spaeth JP. Frontiers in pediatric anesthesia: cardiac anesthesia. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006 Winter;44(1):33-49. Dent CL, Spaeth JP, Jones BV, Schwartz SM, Glauser TA, Hallinan B, Pearl JM, Khoury PR, Kurth CD. Brain magnetic resonance imaging abnormalities after the Norwood procedure using regional cerebral perfusion. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2005 Dec;130(6):1523-30.
Loepke AW, Spaeth JP. Glucose and Heart Surgery: Neonates Are Not Just Small Adults. Anesthesiology. 2004 Jun;100(6):1345-52.Baker RC, Schubert CJ, Kirwan KA, Lenkauskas SM, Spaeth JT. After-hours telephone triage and advice in private and nonprivate pediatric populations. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 1999 Mar;153(3):292-6.
Rajeev Subramanyam, MD, MS
is a health services and outcomes researcher in children undergoing surgery and anesthesia or sedation. He has a special interest in tonsillectomy and sleep apnea population. Health economics is a second research focus.
Clinical and translational outcomes research; tonsillectomy and sleep apnea; health economics
MBBS: Bangalore Medical College, India, 1999.
MD: Chandigarh, India, 2006.
Residency: Anesthesia, Post Graduate Institute of Medical Education and Research, India, 2006.
Pediatric Anesthesia Fellowship: Hospital for Sick Children, Toronto, Canada, 2011.
Advanced Fellowship in Pediatric Anesthesia: Cincinnati Children's Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, 2013.
MS: Clinical and Translational Research, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2013.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 2006.
Subramanyam R, Varughese A, Kurth CD, Eckman MH. Cost-effectiveness of intravenous acetaminophen for pediatric tonsillectomy. Pediatr Anesth. In press.
Subramanyam R, Chidambaran V, Ding L, Myer CM 3rd, Sadhasivam S. Anesthesia and opioid related malpractice claims in the United States: LexisNexis Claims database – 1984 to 2012. Pediatr Anesth. 2014 Jan 13. Epub ahead of print.
Subramanyam R, Varughese A, Willging JP, Sadhasivam S. Future of pediatric tonsillectomy and perioperative outcomes. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2013 Feb;77(2):194-9.
Chung F, Subramanyam R, Liao P, Sasaki E, Shapiro C, Sun Y. A higher score of STOP-Bang score indicates a high probability of obstructive sleep apnea. Br J Anaesth. 2012 May;108(5):768-75.
Mehta V, Subramanyam R, Shapiro CM, Chung F. Health effects of identifying patients with undiagnosed obstructive sleep apnea in the preoperative clinic: a follow-up study. Can J Anaesth. 2012 Jun;59(6):544-55.
Subramanyam R, Vaishnav V, Chan VWS, Brown-Shreves D, Brull R. Lateral vs. Medial Needle Approach for ultrasound-guided supraclavicular block: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2011 Jul-Aug;36(4):387-92.
Batra YK, Rakesh SV, Panda NB, Lokesh VC, Subramanyam R. Intrathecal clonidine decreases sedation requirements during spinal anesthesia in infants. Pediatr Anesth. 2010 Jul;20(7):625-32.
Harjeet K, Aggarwal A, Sahni D, Batra YK, Rakesh SV, Subramanyam R. Anatomical dimensions of larynx, epiglottis and cricoid cartilage in fetuses and their relationship with crown rump length. Surg Radiol Anat. 2010 Aug;32(7):675-81.
Aggarwal A, Kaur H, Batra YK, Aggarwal AK, Subramanyam R, Sahni D. Anatomic consideration of caudal epidural space: A cadaver study. Clin Anat. 2009 Sep;22(6):730-7.
Batra YK, Rajeev S, Subramanyam R, Panda NB, Lokesh VC, Rao KL. Intrathecal neostigmine with bupivacaine for infants undergoing lower abdominal and urogenital procedures: dose response. Acta Anaesthesiol Scand. 2009 Apr;53(4):470-5.
Alexandra Szabova, MD Director, Pain Management Fellowship
is a pediatric anesthesiologist with interest in chronic pediatric pain medicine. She is on staff at the Pain Management Center and a program director of the Pediatric Pain Medicine Fellowship at Cincinnati Children’s. Her area of expertise includes musculoskeletal/back pain in children and young adults and related clinical outcome research.
Director, Pain Management Fellowship
Chronic pediatric pain management; chronic pediatric and adolescent back and musculoskeletal pain management; acute pain management; pediatric regional anesthesia techniques; interventional pain management; pediatric anesthesia
Alexandra Szabova, MD, joined the staff of Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center in 2006. She has worked as a pediatric anesthesiologist but also became a team member of the multidisciplinary chronic pediatric pain clinic.
Dr. Szabova demonstrated strong interest in pediatric chronic pain management during her training. She graduated from a combined pediatric and adult chronic pain management fellowship which was a result of close collaboration between the Cincinnati Children's and Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Dr. Szabova received her medical degree from the Comenius University in Bratislava, Slovakia, and completed her residency in anesthesia at the Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Dr. Szabova completed her combined pediatric and adult chronic pain management at Cincinnati Children's and Cleveland Clinic Foundation where is served as a chief fellow. She graduated with The Pain Fellow of the Year Award. Dr. Szabova completed pediatric anesthesia fellowship at the Cincinnati Children's.
Dr. Szabova's interests include chronic pediatric pain management, musculoskeletal pain in children and adolescents, acute pain management of surgical and non surgical pediatric patients, regional nerve blocks, and pediatric anesthesia.
MD: Comenius University, Bratislava, Slovakia, 1995.
Residency: Anesthesiology, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH.
Fellowship: Pain Management, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH; Pediatric Anesthesia, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 2005; ABA Pain Medicine, 2005.
Rachel Thienprayoon, MD Attending Physician, Palliative Care Team
is a clinical researcher focusing on racial/ethnic disparities in hospice enrollment in children, quality indicators in pediatric hospice care, and systems delivery of hospice care to children.
Attending Physician, Palliative Care Team
Attending Physician, StarShine Hospice
Academic Hospitalist, Cancer and Blood Disease Institute
Pediatric oncology; pediatric hospice and palliative medicine
Dr. Thienprayoon was a St. Baldrick's Fellows Grant recipient from 2011 to 2013. She was an ASH Clinical Research Training Institute participant in 2012. In 2014 she was part of the James M. Anderson Center for Health Systems Excellence Quality Scholars Program.
BS: Chemistry, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, GA, 2003.
MD: Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, 2007.
Residency: General Pediatrics, Children's Medical Center Dallas, Dallas, TX, 2010.
Fellowship: Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, UT Southwestern, Dallas, TX, 2013.
Fellowship: Pediatric Hospice and Palliative Medicine, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2014.
Board certification: General Pediatrics, 2012.
Board eligible: Pediatric Hematology-Oncology, 2013; Hospice and Palliative Medicine, 2014.
Thienprayoon R, Campbell R, Winick NJ. Attitudes and practices in the bereavement care offered by children’s hospitals: a survey of the Pediatric Chaplains Network. Omega: Journal of Death and Dying. Accepted for publication.
Thienprayoon R, Lee SC, Leonard D, Winick NJ. The association between race/ethnicity and hospice enrollment in children with cancer. Pediatric Blood and Cancer. 2013 Jun 3.
Thienprayoon R, Heym KM, Pelfrey L, Bowers DC. Accidental cytarabine overdose in childhood: a case series. Annals of Pharmacotherapy. 2013 May;47(5):e24.
Anna M. Varughese, MD, MPH Associate Director, Department of Anesthesia
is a pediatric anesthesiologist with an interest in quality improvement, outcomes and health services research. Her current work is centered on measuring perioperative quality outcomes and developing predictive models to improve outcomes as well as optimizing resources, efficiency and flow in the perioperative arena.
Associate Director, Department of Anesthesia
Pain management; anesthesia for spine surgery; neonatal anesthesia
Postoperative pain management; clinical effectiveness in anesthesia care
MD: Madras University, Vellore, India, 1989.
Residency: Anesthesiology, Christian Medical College Hospital, Vellore, India, 1989; Anesthesiology, Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Birmingham, England, 1994; Anesthesiology, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 1995.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesiology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 1996.
Certification: American Board of Anesthesiology, 1996.
DA: Anesthesia, Madras, India, 1988.
FRCA: Fellowship of the Royal College of Anesthetists, United Kingdom, 1993.
MPH: Master in Public Health, Harvard School of Public Health, Boston, MA, 2003-2005.
Luigi Viola, MD Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and acute pain physician with interests in evaluating brain cortical response to acute painful stimulation with functional-NIRS. He is also a co-investigator in pharmacogenetic studies of opioids in post - spine surgical and post-tonsillectomy patients. Surgical site infection prevention and anesthesia infection control measures is his second clinical research focus.
MD: Catholic University of Rome, Medical School, 1991.
Residency: Pediatrics, Catholic University, Rome, 1995; Anesthesiology and Intensive Care, Catholic University, 2006; Anesthesiology, Shands Hospital at University of Florida, Gainesville, 2010.
Fellowship: Neonatology, Catholic University, Rome, 1998; Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, 2011.
Chiaretti A, Antonelli A, Genovese O, Pezzotti P, Rocco CD, Viola L, Riccardi R. Nerve growth factor and double certain expression correlates with improved outcome in children with severe traumatic brain injury. J Trauma. 2008 Jul; 65(1):80-5.
Viola L, Langer A, et al. Serious Pseudomonas Aeruginosa infection in healthy children: case report and review of the literature. Ped Internat. 2006;48:330-33.
Pulitano S, Viola L, et al. Miller-Fisher syndrome mimicking intracranial hypertension following head trauma. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2005; 21:473-76.
Piastra M, Pietrini D, Caresta E, Chiaretti A, Viola L, Cota F, Pusateri A, Polidori G, DiRocco C. Hemispherectomy procedures in children: hematological issues. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2004; 20:453-58. Chiaretti A, DeBenedictis R, Della Corte F, Piastra M, Viola L, Polidori G, DiRocco C. The impact of initial management on the outcome of children with severe head injury. Child’s Nerv Syst. 2002; 18:54-60.Piastra M, Curro V, Chiaretti A, Viola L, Tortorolo L, Polidori G. Intracranial hemorrhage at the onset of thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura in an infant: therapeutic approach and intensive care management. Pediatr Emerg Care. 2001; 17(1):42-5. Chiaretti A, Viola L, et al. Preemptive analgesia with tramadol and fentanyl in pediatric neurosurgery. Childs Nerv Syst. 2000;16(2):93-9.
Tortorolo L, Chiaretti A, Piastra M, Viola L, Polidori G. Surfactant treatment in a pediatric burn patient with respiratory failure. Ped Emerg Care.1999;15(6):410-11.
Velardi F, DiChirico A, DiRocco C, Fundarò C, Serafina R, Piastra M, Viola L, Pietrini D, Pusateri A, Stoppa F. No Allogeneic Blood Transfusion protocol for the surgical correction of craniosynostoses. I. Rationale; II. Clinical Application. Child’s Nerv Syst. 1998;14:722-39.
Viola L, Chiaretti A, et al. Acute hydrocephalus as a sequence of mumps meningoencephalitis. Pediatric Emergency Care.1998;14(3):212-14.
Eric P. Wittkugel, MD Staff Anesthesiologist
is a pediatric anesthesiologist and a mentor with a research and education focus on quality improvement and safety in outpatient pediatric anesthesia. His research focuses on the use of quality improvement methods to optimize preanesthetic evaluation and clinical outcomes for children undergoing ambulatory surgery. His clinical interests include anesthesia for airway surgery and for children with epidermolysis bullosa.
Eric Wittkugel, MD, has been a practicing pediatric anesthesiologist since 1989, when he joined the Department of Anesthesia at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
MD: State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, 1983.
Internship: Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, State University of New York at Buffalo, NY, 1983-1984;
Residency: Anesthesia, University of Pennsylvania Hospitals, Philadelphia, PA, 1986-1988. Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, 1984-1986.
Fellowship: Pediatric Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, PA, 1988-1989.
Certification: Anesthesiology, 1990; Pediatrics, 1987.
Varughese AM, Byczkowski TL, Wittkugel EP, Kotagal U, Dean Kurth C. Impact of a nurse practitioner-assisted preoperative assessment program on quality. Paediatr Anaesth. 2006 Jul;16(7):723-33. Azizkhan RG, Stehr W, Cohen AP, Wittkugel E, Farrell MK, Lucky AW, Hammelman BD, Johnson ND, Racadio JM. Esophageal strictures in children with recessive dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa: an 11-year experience with fluoroscopically guided balloon dilatation. J Pediatr Surg. 2006 Jan;41(1):55-60.
Wittkugel EP, Varughese AM. Pediatric preoperative evaluation--a new paradigm. Int Anesthesiol Clin. 2006 Winter;44(1):141-58. Review.
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