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Robert W. Frenck Jr., MD Interim Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
has been working on the clinical testing of the 13-valent conjugate pneumococcal vaccine. Current trials include use of the vaccine in children who have undergone bone marrow transplant. He also developed evaluation of a model for norovirus infection, and will be leading a series of clinical trials to test a new candidate vaccine to prevent infections by Shigella.
Interim Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Medical Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Vaccine research; enteric diseases; travel medicine
Enteric diseases; vaccinology
Robert W. Frenck Jr., MD, received his undergraduate degree from the University of California at San Diego in 1977 followed by his doctor of medicine degree from the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston in 1981. He trained at the National Naval Medical Center in Bethesda, Maryland, completing his pediatric residency in 1984. After three years as a general pediatrician at the US Naval Hospital, Japan, he entered pediatric infectious disease fellowship training at the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, which he completed in 1990. Dr. Frenck is board-certified in both pediatrics and infectious diseases.
Dr. Frenck's research interests include therapeutic and vaccine clinical trials with special interest in enteric diseases. After completing a 25-year career in the Navy, Dr. Frenck joined the UCLA Center for Vaccine Research in 2004 and served until 2006 as director of the Center and a Professor of Pediatrics at UCLA School of Medicine. Dr. Frenck has been active in the American Academy of Pediatrics and currently serves on the Red Book Committee. He is an acknowledged authority in infectious diseases and has authored over 60 articles and book chapters on various aspects of this subject.
Riddle MS, Rockabrand DM, Schlett C, Monteville MR, Frenck RW, Romine M, Ahmed SF, Sanders JW. A prospective study of acute diarrhea in a cohort of United States military personnel on deployment to the multinational force and observers, Sinai, Egypt. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2011 Jan;84(1):59-64.
Schlaudecker EP, Frenck RW Jr. Adolescent pneumonia. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010 Aug;21(2):202-19, vii-viii. Review.
Braverman PK, Frenck RW Jr, Holland-Hall C. Infectious diseases and immunizations. Preface. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010 Aug;21(2):xii. No abstract available.
Matson DO, Abdel-Messih IA, Schlett CD, Bok K, Wienkopff T, Wierzba TF, Sanders JW, Frenck RW Jr. Rotavirus genotypes among hospitalized children in Egypt, 2000-2002. J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 1;202 Suppl:S263-5.
Frenck RW Jr, Seward JF. Varicella vaccine safety and immunogenicity in patients with juvenile rheumatic diseases receiving methotrexate and corticosteroids. Arthritis Care Res (Hoboken). 2010 Jul;62(7):903-6. No abstract available.
Mansour AM, Nakhla II, Sultan YA, Frenck RW Jr. Brucella meningitis: first reported case in Egypt. East Mediterr Health J. 2009 Jul-Aug;15(4):1040-4. No abstract available.
Porter CK, Riddle MS, Tribble DR, Putnam SD, Rockabrand DM, Frenck RW, Rozmajzl P, Kilbane E, Fox A, Ruck R, Lim M, Johnston J, Murphy E, Sanders JW. The epidemiology of travelers' diarrhea in Incirlik, Turkey: a region with a predominance of heat-stabile toxin producing enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli. Diagn Microbiol Infect Dis. 2010 Mar;66(3):241-7.
Melmed GY, Agarwal N, Frenck RW, Ippoliti AF, Ibanez P, Papadakis KA, Simpson P, Barolet-Garcia C, Ward J, Targan SR, Vasiliauskas EA. Immunosuppression impairs response to pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccination in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Am J Gastroenterol. 2010 Jan;105(1):148-54.
Frenck RW, Fathy H, Sherif M, Mohran Z, El Mohammedy, Francis HW, Rockabrand D, Mounir BI, Rozmajzl P, Frierson H. Sensitivity and Specificity of Various Tests for the Diagnosis of H. pylori in Egyptian Children. Pediatrics; 2006;118:e1195-1202.
Monteville MR, Riddle MS, Baht U, Putnam SD, Frenck RW, Brooks K, Moustafa M, Bland J, Sanders JW. Incidence, Etiology and Impact of Diarrhea Among Deployed US Military Personnel in Support of Operation Iraqi Freedom and Operation Enduring Freedom. Am Soc Trop Med Hyg; 2006;75:762-7.
David I. Bernstein, MD, MA Director, Gamble Program and VTEU
conducts clinical vaccine trials, including trials involving infants and the elderly that are supported by the NIH through the Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Unit which he directs at Cincinnati Children’s. His special interest is the pathogenesis and immunobiology of herpes viruses (herpes simplex and cytomegalovirus).
Director, Gamble Program and VTEU
Rotavirus; herpes simplex virus; cytomegalovirus; preclinical and clinical evaluations of vaccine; immune response to herpes virus
Evaluation of vaccines and antivirals for herpes and rotovirus; development of improved adjuvants and delivery systems for vaccines; treatment and prevention of influenza, norovirus and parvovirus infections
Dr. Bernstein received his MA degree in microbiology and his MD degree from SUNY at Buffalo. His pediatric training was undertaken at USC and the New England Medical Center. This was followed by an ID fellowship at UCLA.
During his fellowship he became interested in herpes viruses and vaccines. Upon arrival at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center he began his work investigating the immunobiology of genital herpes infections. At this time he also became interested in rotavirus and along with his colleague Dr. Richard Ward he investigated the immune responses that provide protection.
This work led to the development of a live attenuated human rotavirus vaccine initially named 89-12. The 89-12 vaccine was further modified and became the GlaxoSmithKline rotavirus vaccine, Rotarix, currently available in over 100 countries including the USA and EU. Dr. Bernstein is currently evaluating vaccines for CMV, HSV, influenza, avian influenza, RSV, norovirus and parvovirus. Dr. Bernstein has published over 200 manuscripts and book chapters on infectious diseases, vaccines and antivirals. Dr. Bernstein is currently the Albert Sabin Professor of pediatrics and director of the Division of Infectious Diseases at Cincinnati Children’s and directs one of eight NIH funded Vaccine Evaluation Units.
MA: Microbiology, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY, 1973.MD: State University of New York at Buffalo School of Medicine, Buffalo, NY, 1977.
Residency: Pediatrics, University of Southern California Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA; Tufts University School of Medicine, Boston, MA.
Fellowship: Pediatric Infectious Disease, University of California, Los Angeles, CA.
Certification: American Board of Medical Examiners, 1978; American Board of Pediatrics, 1981; Pediatrics, 1982.
Staat MA, Rice MA, Donauer S, Payne DC, Bresee JS, Mast TC, Curns AT, Cortese MM, Connelly B, McNeal M, Ward RL, Bernstein DI, Parashar UD, Salisbury S. Estimating the rotavirus hospitalization disease burden and trends, using capture-recapture methods. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Dec;29(12):1083-6.
Widdice LE, Bernstein DI, Leonard AC, Marsolo KA, Kahn JA. Adherence to the HPV Vaccine Dosing Intervals and Factors Associated With Completion of 3 Doses. Pediatrics. 2010 Dec 13.
Bernstein DI, Epstein T, Murphy-Berendts K, Liss GM. Surveillance of systemic reactions to subcutaneous immunotherapy injections: year 1 outcomes of the ACAAI and AAAAI collaborative study. Ann Allergy Asthma Immunol. 2010 Jun;104(6):530-5. Sublett JW, Bernstein DI. Occupational rhinitis. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2010 Mar;10(2):99-104. Bernstein DI. The changing epidemiology of rotavirus gastroenteritis. Introduction. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Mar;28(3 Suppl):S49. Bernstein DI, Cardin RD, Bravo FJ, Strasser JE, Farley N, Chalk C, Lay M, Fairman J. Potent adjuvant activity of cationic liposome-DNA complexes for genital herpes vaccines. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2009 May;16(5):699-705. Yee EL, Staat MA, Azimi P, Bernstein DI, Ward RL, Schubert C, Matson DO, Turcios-Ruiz RM, Parashar U, Widdowson MA, Glass RI. Burden of rotavirus disease among children visiting pediatric emergency departments in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Oakland, California, in 1999-2000. Pediatrics. 2008 Nov;122(5):971-7. Bernstein DI, Edwards KM, Dekker CL, Belshe R, Talbot HK, Graham IL, Noah DL, He F, Hill H. Effects of adjuvants on the safety and immunogenicity of an avian influenza H5N1 vaccine in adults. J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 1;197(5):667-75.
Bravo FJ, Cardin RD, Bernstein DI. A model of human cytomegalovirus infection in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Antiviral Res. 2007;76:104-110. Kahn JA, Rosenthal SL, Tissot AM, Bernstein DI, Wetzel C, Zimet GD. Factors influencing pediatricians’ intention to recommend human papillomavirus vaccines. Ambul Pediatr. 2007;7:367-373.
Vaccine and Treatment Evaluation Units (VTEUs): Evaluation of Control Measures Against Diseases Other Than AIDS. Principal Investigator. 2007 - 2014. #NO1-AI-80006.
Steven Black, MD
MD: University of California, San Diego, 1973
Residency: Pediatrics, Kaiser Hospital, San Fransisco CA; Infectious Disease, University of California, San Fransisco CA
Certification: Pediatrics, 1980; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 1995
Black S, Ray P, Shinefield H, Saddier P, Nikas A. Lack of Association of Age of Vaccination and Risk of Breakthrough Varicella within Northern California Kaiser Permanente Medical Care Program. J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar1;197 Suppl 2:S139-42.
Klein NP, Fireman B, Enright A, Ray P, Black S, Dekker C. A role for genetics in the immune response to varicella vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007April; 26(4):300-5.
Bernstein HH, Eves K, Campbell K, Black SB, Twiggs JD et al. Comparison of the safety and immunogenicity of a refrigerator-stable versus frozen formulation of ProQuad (measles, mumps, rubella and varicella live) vaccine. Pediatrics 2007 Jun;119(6):e1299-305.
Black S, France EK, Isaacman D, Bracken L, Lewis E, Hansen J, Fireman B, Austrian R et al. Surveillance for invasive pneumococcal disease during 2000-2005 in a population of children who received 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2007 Sept;26(9):771-7.
Seigrist CA, Lewis EM, Eskola J, Black SB. Human Papilloma Virus Immunization in Adolescents: A Cohort Study to Illustrate What Events Might be Mistaken for Adverse Events. Pediat Infect Dis J. 2007 Nov; 2(11): 979-984.
Rebecca C. Brady, MD Director, Adult Clinical Services
is interested in adult vaccines and influenza. Dr. Brady is the PI for funded clinical trials of influenza vaccines in children and adults.
Director, Adult Clinical Services
Assistant Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Adult and pediatric infectious disease
Cytomegalovirus and other viral infections
MD: University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 1988.
Residency: Internal Medicine/Pediatrics, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY.
Fellowships: Pediatric Infectious Diseases, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio; Adult Infectious Diseases, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH.
Certifications: Pediatrics, 1992, recertified 1999; Internal Medicine, 1993; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 1997; Adult Infectious Diseases, 1997.
Subbramanian RA, Basha S, Shata MT, Brady RC, Bernstein DI. Pandemic and seasonal H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin-specific T cell responses elicited by seasonal influenza vaccination. Vaccine. 2010 Dec 6;28(52):8258-67. Brady RC. Influenza. Adolesc Med State Art Rev. 2010 Aug;21(2):236-50, viii. Subbramanian RA, Basha S, Brady RC, Hazenfeld S, Shata MT, Bernstein DI. Age-related changes in magnitude and diversity of cross-reactive CD4+ T-cell responses to the novel pandemic H1N1 influenza hemagglutinin. Hum Immunol. 2010 Oct;71(10):957-63. Brady RC, Treanor JJ, Atmar RL, Keitel WA, Edelman R, Chen WH, Winokur P, Belshe R, Graham IL, Noah DL, Guo K, Hill H. Safety and immunogenicity of a subvirion inactivated influenza A/H5N1 vaccine with or without aluminum hydroxide among healthy elderly adults. Vaccine. 2009 Aug 13;27(37):5091-5.
de Bruyn G, Vargas-Cortez M, Warren T, Tyring SK, Fife KH, Lalezari J, Brady RC, Shahmanesh M, Kinghorn G, Beutner KR, Patel R, Drehobl MA, Horner P, Kurtz TO, McDermott S, Wald A, Corey L. A randomized controlled trial of a replication defective (gH deletion) herpes simplex virus vaccine for the treatment of recurrent genital herpes among immunocompetent subjects. Vaccine.2006; 24:914-20.
Treanor JJ, Schiff GM, Couch RB, Cate TR, Brady RC, Hay M, Wolff M, She D, Cox MMJ. Dose-related safety and immunogenicity of a trivalent baculovirus-expressed influenza-virus hemagglutinin vaccine in elderly adults. Journal of Infectious Diseases. 2006; 193:1223-8.
Treanor JJ, Schiff GM, Hayden FG, Brady RC, Hay CM, Meyer AL, Holden-Wiltse J, Liang H, Gilbert A, Cox M. Safety and immunogenicity of a baculovirus-expressed hemagglutinin influenza vaccine: a randomized controlled trial. Journal of the American Medical Association. 2007; 297:1577-82.
Couch RC, Winokur P, Brady RC, Belshe R, Chen WH, Cate TR, Sigurdardottir B, Hoeper A, Graham IL, Edelman R, He F, Nino D, Capellan J, Ruben FL. Safety and immunogenicity of a high dosage trivalent influenza vaccine among elderly subjects. Vaccine. 2007; 25:7656-63.
Rhonda Cardin, PhD
studies the viral/host interactions that contribute to cytomegalovirus (CMV) pathogenesis and latency. Her lab recently identified the first CMV gene, M33, that plays a critical role in CMV latency. Her current studies aim to identify the mechanisms of M33 function in latency and may lead to therapies to control long-term latent CMV infection.
Associate Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Beverly L. Connelly, MD Director, Infection Control Program
is interested in the epidemiology of vaccine-preventable diseases with a particular focus on influenza and pertussis. She is also interested in the epidemiology and prevention of healthcare-associated infections with a focus on device-related infections. In addition, she is interested in healthcare quality improvement initiatives.
Director, Infection Control Program
MD: Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, Ga., 1979.
Residency: Pediatrics, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1979-1982.
Fellowship: Pediatric Infectious Disease, Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, Ohio, 1983-1986.
Certification: Pediatrics, 1984; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 1994, recertified, 2000.
Lara A. Danziger-Isakov, MD, MPH Director, Transplant ID
is a clinician and clinical researcher focusing on infections in immunocompromised hosts, primarily transplant recipients. She studies the interactions among infection, immunity and graft outcomes in pediatric transplantation. Additionally, Dr. Danziger-Isakov studies immunizations and infectious disease risk assessment in pediatric solid organ transplantation.
Director, Transplant ID
Transplant infectious diseases
Dr. Danziger-Isakov began her research career investigating cytomegalovirus in pediatric lung transplant recipients. After completing fellowship she led an international epidemiological study of pediatric lung transplant recipients including 14 international sites from North America and Europe to publish seminal manuscripts on fungal and viral infections through the International Pediatric Lung Transplant Collaborative. While at the Cleveland Clinic she performed an innovative investigation evaluating alloreactive cellular and humoral responses to influenza vaccine in transplant recipients. She is the protocol chair for two NIH-funded pediatric transplant studies in the Clinical Trials in Organ Transplantation in Pediatrics (CTOT-C) entitled "Viral Triggers of Alloimmunity and Autoimmunity in Pediatric Lung Transplantation (CTOTC-03)" and "Perceived Barriers to Patient Adherence after Pediatric Solid Organ Transplantation (CTOTC-05)" with principal investigator Stuart Sweet at Washington University.
Dr. Danziger-Isakov is a member of several international organizations, with guest lectureships throughout the North America and Europe. She has been recognized with the Clinical Science Career Development Award from the American Society of Transplantation in 2012, has been elected as co-editor for the American Society of Transplantation’s 3rd Edition of the Infectious Diseases Guidelines, and served as Infectious Disease Council Chair for the International Society of Heart and Lung Transplantation.
MD: Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH, 1997.
MPH: Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO, 2004.
Residency: Pediatrics, Cleveland Clinic Foundation, Cleveland, OH, 1997-2000.
Fellowship: Pediatric Infectious Diseases, St. Louis Children’s Hospital, Washington Univeristy, St. Louis, MO, 2000-2003.
Certification: Pediatrics, 2000; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 2003.
Danziger-Isakov LA, Sweet S, DelaMorena M, Mendeloff E, Huddleston CB, DeBaun MR. Epidemiology of bloodstream infections in the first year after pediatric lung transplantation. The Pediatr Infectious Disease Journal. 2005; 24(4):324-330.
Spivey JF, Singleton D, Sweet S, Storch GA, Hayashi RJ, Huddleston CB, Danziger-Isakov LA. Prolonged Prophylaxis Against Cytomegalovirus (CMV) With Ganciclovir To Diminish CMV Viremia in Pediatric Lung Transplant Recipients: A Phase II Pilot Study. Pediatric Transplantation. 2007;11(3):312-8.
Danziger-Isakov LA, Worley S, Arrigain S,Aurora P, Ballmann M, Boyer D, Conrad C, Eichler I, Elidemir O, Goldfarb S, Mallory GB, Michaels MG, Michelson P, Mogayzel PJ, Parakininkas D, Solomon M, Visner G, Sweet S, Faro A. Increased Mortality after pulmonary fungal infection within the first year after pediatric lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2008; 27(6): 655-661.
Danziger-Isakov LA, Worley S, Michaels MG, Arrigain S, Aurora P, Ballmann M, Boyer D, Conrad C, Eichler I, Elidemir O, Goldfarb S, Mallory GB, Mogayzel PJ, Parakininkas D, Solomon M, Visner G, Sweet S, Faro A. The risk, prevention & outcome of cytomegalovirus after pediatric lung transplantation. Transplantation. 2009 May 27;87(10):1541-8.
Liu M, Worley S, Arrigain S, Aurora P, Ballmann M, Boyer D, Conrad C, Eichler I, Elidemir O, Goldfarb S, Mallory GB, Michelson P, Mogayzel PJ, Parakininkas D, Visner G, Sweet S, Faro A, Michaels M, Danziger-Isakov LA. Respiratory Viral Infections within one year after Pediatric Lung Transplant. Transpl Infect Dis. 2009 Aug;11(4):304-12.
Ranganathan K, Worley S, Michaels MG, Arrigan S, Aurora P, Ballmann M, Boyer D, Conrad C, Eichler I, Elidemir O, Goldfarb S, Mallory GB Jr, Mogayzel PJ, Parakininkas D, Solomon M, Visner G, Sweet SC, Faro A, Danziger-Isakov L. Cytomegalovirus immunoglobulin decreases the risk of cytomegalovirus infection but not disease after pediatric lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2009 Oct;28(10):1050-6.
Danziger-Isakov LA, Cherkassky L, Siegel H, McManamon M, Kramer K, Budev M, Sawinski D, Augustine JJ, Hricik DE, Fairchild R, Heeger PS, Poggio ED. Effects of influenza immunization on humoral and cellular alloreactivity in humans. Transplantation, 2010 Apr 15;89(7):838-44.
Cherkassky L, Lanning M, Lalli PN, Czerr J, Siegel H, Danziger-Isakov L, Srinivas T, Valujskikh A, Shoskes DA, Baldwin W, Fairchild RL, Poggio ED. Evaluation of Alloreactivity in Kidney Transplant Recipients Treated with Antithymocyte Globulin Versus IL-2 Receptor Blocker. Am J Transplant. 2011 Jul;11(7):1388-1396.
Moses J, Alkhouri N, Shannon A, Raig K, Lopez R, Danziger-Isakov L, Feldstein AE, Zein NN, Wyllie R, Carter-Kent C. Hepatitis B Immunity and Response to Booster Vaccination in Children With Inflammatory Bowel Disease Treated With Infliximab. Am J Gastroenterol. 2011 Aug 30.
Li L, Avery R, Budev M, Mossad S, Danziger-Isakov L. Oral versus inhaled ribavirin therapy for respiratory syncytial virus infection after lung transplantation. J Heart Lung Transplant. 2012 Aug;31(8):839-44.
David B. Haslam, MD Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program
Director, Antimicrobial Stewardship Program
Clinical Director, Division of Infectious Diseases
Pediatric infectious diseases; host-microbial interactions; innate immunity
MD: University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, 1987.
Rotating Internship: McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, 1988.
Residency: University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Quebec, 1991.
Fellowship: Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, 2005.
Certification: Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 1997.
El Feghaly R, Stauber J, Tarr PI, Haslam DB. Intestinal inflammatory biomarkers and outcome in pediatric Clostridium difficile infections. J Pediatr. 2013. In press.
El Feghaly R, Stauber J, Tarr PI, Haslam DB. Viral co-infections are common and are associated with higher bacterial burden in children diagnosed with Clostridium difficile colitis. JPGN. In press.
El Feghaly R, Stauber J, Deych E, Gonzales C, Tarr PI, Haslam DB. Markers of intestinal Inflammation, not bacterial burden, correlate with clinical outcomes in Clostridium difficile infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2013;56(12):1713-21.
Bobo, LD, El Feghaly R, Chen YS, Dubberke ER, Han Z, Baker A, Li J, Burnham CA, Haslam DB. MAPK-activated protein kinase 2 contributes to Clostridium difficile-associated inflammation. Infect Immun. 2013;81(3):713-722.
Chumbler NM, Farrow MA, Lapierre L, Franklin J, Haslam DB, Goldenring J, Lacey B. Clostridium difficile Toxin B causes epithelial cell necrosis through an autoprocessing-independent mechanism. Plos Pathogens. 2012;8(12):1-12.
Saenz JB, Li J, Haslam DB. The MAP kinase-activated protein kinase 2 (MK2) contributes to the Shiga toxin-induced inflammatory response. Cell Microbiol. 2010;12:516-29.
Saenz JB, Sun, W, Chang, JW, Li, J, Bursulaya, B., Gray, NS, Haslam, DB. Golgicide A reveals essential roles for GBF1 in Golgi assembly and function. Nature Chem Biol.2009;5(3):157-65.
Andrew B. Herr, PhD
studies protein-protein interactions involved in immune receptor signaling and bacterial pathogenesis. His lab uses X-ray crystallography to solve the atomic structures of proteins along with techniques of biophysical chemistry to understand their interactions in solution. The goal is to understand the molecular basis for autoimmune responses and recurrent bacterial infections, and to develop new therapeutic applications.
Structural biology and biophysics of antibodies; immune receptors; bacterial surface proteins
Andrew Herr, PhD, is an associate professor in the Division of Immunobiology and Center for Systems Immunology, with an affiliate appointment in the Division of Infectious Diseases. Dr. Herr completed his thesis work in molecular biophysics from Washington University in St. Louis, and completed his postdoctoral work in structural immunology at the California Institute of Technology as a Damon Runyon Research Fellow. He was recruited to the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine as an Ohio Eminent Scholar in Structural Biology before moving to Cincinnati Children’s Hospital.
Dr. Herr solved the first structure of a human IgA1 antibody bound to its cognate Fc receptor while at Caltech, and his lab has continued to study antibodies and immune receptors implicated in autoimmune diseases. In addition, the lab is studying a family of related collagen-specific immune receptors such as glycoprotein VI, which activates platelets upon exposure to fibrous collagen. The Herr lab also studies mechanisms of bacterial pathogenesis. Specifically, they discovered the zinc-dependent mechanism of intercellular adhesion in bacterial biofilms formed by Staphylococcus epidermidis and S. aureus. Biofilms are specialized bacterial colonies that are highly resistant to antibiotics and immune responses, so developing novel therapies to prevent biofilm formation is of high importance.
Before joining the faculty at Cincinnati Children’s, Dr. Herr was an Ohio Eminent Scholar in Structural Biology at the University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and served as an associate director of the Cincinnati Medical Scientist (MD/PhD) Training Program. Dr. Herr received the 2014 Emerging Entrepreneurial Achievement Faculty Award from UC for his work to commercialize a novel anti-infective therapy based on his lab’s research.
BA: Oral Roberts University, Tulsa, OK, 1993.
PhD: Washington University Medical School, St. Louis, MO, 1999.
Postdoc: California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA, 2003.
Li X, Shu C, Yi G, Chaton CT, Shelton CL, Diao J, Zuo X, Kao CC, Herr AB, Li P. Cyclic GMP-AMP synthase is activated by double-stranded DNA-induced oligomerization. Immunity. 2013 Dec 12;39(6):1019-31.
Conrady DG, Wilson JJ, Herr AB. Structural basis for Zn2+-dependent intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jan 15;110(3):E202-11.
Herr AB, Conrady DG. Thermodynamic analysis of metal ion-induced assembly. Methods Enzymol. 2011;488:101-21.
Herr AB, Farndale RW. Structural insights into the interactions between platelet receptors and fibrillar collagen. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 24;284(30):19781-5.
Horii K, Brooks MT, Herr AB. Convulxin forms a dimer in solution and can bind eight copies of glycoprotein VI: Implications for platelet activation. Biochemistry. 2009 Apr 7;48(13):2907-14.
Conrady DG, Brescia CC, Horii K, Weiss AA, Hassett DJ, Herr AB. A zinc-dependent adhesion module is responsible for intercellular adhesion in staphylococcal biofilms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 9;105(49):19456-61.
Gomes, MM, SB Wall, K Takahashi, J Novak, MB Renfrow, and AB Herr. Analysis of IgA1 N-glycosylation and its contribution to FcaRI binding. Biochemistry. 2008 Oct 28;47(43):11285-99.
Horii K, Kahn ML, Herr AB. Structural basis for platelet collagen responses by the immune-type receptor glycoprotein VI. Blood. 2006 Aug 1;108(3):936-42.
Herr, AB, ER Ballister, and PJ Bjorkman. Insights into IgA-mediated immune responses from the crystal structures of human FcaRI and its complex with IgA1-Fc. Nature. 2003 Jun 5;423(6940):614-20.
Ornitz DM, Herr AB, Nilsson M, Westman J, Svahn CM, Waksman G. FGF binding and FGF receptor activation by synthetic heparan-derived di- and trisaccharides. Science. 1995 Apr 21;268(5209):432-6.
Studies of metal-dependent intercellular adhesion in Staphylococcal biofilms. Principal Investigator. National Institutes of Health. Sep 2011 – Jun 2015. NIH R01 GM094363.
Analytical tools for the analysis of clustered O-glycans in clinical samples. Principal Investigator of Sub-contract. National Institutes of Health. Sep 2011 – Jul 2015. NIH R01 GM098539.
Margaret K. Hostetter, MD BK Rachford Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatrics
studies the pathogenesis of bloodstream infections caused by the yeast Candida albicans. Her work has highlighted the role of C. albicans in biofilms, activation of human T cells, and evasion of innate immune mechanisms. Her clinical research is focused on the medical evaluation of internationally adopted children.
BK Rachford Professor and Chair, Department of Pediatrics
Bacterial and fungal infections; medical evaluation of internationally adopted children
Xi Jason Jiang, PhD
focuses on enteric viruses causing acute gastroenteritis, mainly the human noroviruses and rotaviruses. His major approaches include molecular virology, recombinant technology, epidemiology, immunology and bioinformatics. He is also interested in development of vaccine and antivirals against these important pathogens.
Infectious diseases; viral gastroenteritis
Morrow AL, Meinzen-Derr J, Huang P, Schibler KR, Cahill T, Keddache M, Kallapur SG, Newburg DS, Tabangin M, Warner BB, Jiang X. Fucosyltransferase 2 Non-Secretor and Low Secretor Status Predicts Severe Outcomes in Premature Infants. J Pediatr. 2011 Jan 20.
Tan M, Fang PA, Xia M, Chachiyo T, Jiang W, Jiang X. Terminal modifications of norovirus P domain resulted in a new type of subviral particles, the small P particles. Virology. 2011 Feb 20;410(2):345-52.
Tan M, Huang P, Xia M, Fang PA, Zhong W, McNeal M, Wei C, Jiang W, Jiang X. Norovirus P particle, a novel platform for vaccine development and antibody production. J Virol. 2011 Jan;85(2):753-64.
Tan M, Jiang X. Norovirus gastroenteritis, carbohydrate receptors, and animal models. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Aug 26;6(8). pii: e1000983. Review.
Farkas T, Dufour J, Jiang X, Sestak K. Detection of norovirus-, sapovirus- and rhesus enteric calicivirus-specific antibodies in captive juvenile macaques. J Gen Virol. 2010 Mar;91(Pt 3):734-8.
Tan M, Xia M, Chen Y, Bu W, Hegde RS, Meller J, Li X, Jiang X. Conservation of carbohydrate binding interfaces: evidence of human HBGA selection in norovirus evolution. PLoS One. 2009;4(4):e5058.
Huang P, Morrow AL, Jiang X. The carbohydrate moiety and high molecular weight carrier of histo-blood group antigens are both required for norovirus-receptor recognition. Glycoconj J. 2009 Nov;26(8):1085-96.
Tan M, Fang P, Chachiyo T, Xia M, Huang P, Fang Z, Jiang W, Jiang X. Noroviral P particle: structure, function and applications in virus-host interaction. Virology. 2008 Dec 5;382(1):115-23.
Wei C, Farkas T, Sestak K, Jiang X. Recovery of infectious virus by transfection of in vitro-generated RNA from Tulane calicivirus cDNA. J Virol. 2008 Nov;82(22):11429-36.
Tan M, Xia M, Cao S, Huang P, Farkas T, Meller J, Hegde RS, Li X, Rao Z, Jiang X. Elucidation of strain-specific interaction of a GII-4 norovirus with HBGA receptors by site-directed mutagenesis study. Virology. 2008 Sep 30;379(2):324-34.
Monica Malone McNeal, MS Associate Director, Laboratory of Specialized Clinical Studies
Associate Director, Laboratory of Specialized Clinical Studies
Instructor, UC Department of Pediatrics
Vaccine development; rotavirus; influenza and CMV
Immunology of rotavirus infection
Monica Malone McNeal, MS, is a virologist in the Division of Infectious Diseases at Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. She has more than 23 years of experience in rotavirus research. She has established an adult mouse model that has been used extensively in this facility and labs around the world. Her major expertise is in immunology and vaccine development. Currently she is the Associate Director of the Laboratory for Specialized Clinical Studies. This lab provides support for clinical studies involved in vaccine development. They perform work for several major pharmaceutical companies in addition to supporting other clinical researchers at Cincinnati Children’s.
Ward RL, McNeal MM. VP6: A candidate rotavirus vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2010 Sep 1;202 Suppl:S101-7. Review.
Bernstein DI, Farley N, Bravo FJ, Earwood J, McNeal M, Fairman J, Cardin R. The adjuvant CLDC increases protection of a herpes simplex type 2 glycoprotein D vaccine in guinea pigs. Vaccine. 2010 May 7;28(21):3748-53.
Bondoc AJ, Jafri MA, Donnelly B, Mohanty SK, McNeal MM, Ward RL, Tiao GM. Prevention of the murine model of biliary atresia after live rotavirus vaccination of dams. J Pediatr Surg. 2009 Aug;44(8):1479-90.
Ward RL, McNeal MM, Steele AD. Why does the world need another rotavirus vaccine? Ther Clin Risk Manag. 2008 Feb;4(1):49-63.
Jafri M, Donnelly B, Allen S, Bondoc A, McNeal M, Rennert PD, Weinreb PH, Ward R, Tiao G. Cholangiocyte expression of alpha2beta1-integrin confers susceptibility to rotavirus-induced experimental biliary atresia. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2008 Jul;295(1):G16-G26.
McNeal MM, Stone SC, Basu M, Clements JD, Choi AH, Ward RL. IFN-gamma is the only anti-rotavirus cytokine found after in vitro stimulation of memory CD4+ T cells from mice immunized with a chimeric VP6 protein. Viral Immunol. 2007 Dec;20(4):571-84.
Jafri M, Donnelly B, McNeal M, Ward R, Tiao G. MAPK signaling contributes to rotaviral-induced cholangiocyte injury and viral replication. Surgery. 2007 Aug;142(2):192-201.
Shivakumar P, Sabla G, Mohanty S, McNeal M, Ward R, Stringer K, Caldwell C, Chougnet C, Bezerra JA. Effector role of neonatal hepatic CD8+ lymphocytes in epithelial injury and autoimmunity in experimental biliary atresia. Gastroenterology. 2007 Jul;133(1):268-77.
Grant C. Paulsen, MD
conducts clinical research complementary to his clinical role focusing on infectious complications in immune compromised hosts. Dr. Paulsen explores issues related to vaccination in the post-transplant setting, management of viral infections in immune compromised hosts and the impact of pre-transplant infectious disease evaluation.
Dr. Paulsen began his research career investigating Epstein-Barr Virus (EBV) and its impact on the immune system of pediatric renal transplant recipients as well as analysis of risk factors for EBV viremia after renal transplantation. These results were presented at the World Tranplant Congress 2014 with the full manuscript in process.
MD: University of Colorado Health Sciences Center, Denver, CO, 2005.
Residency: Internal Medicine and Pediatrics, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, 2005-2009.
Fellowship: Adult and Pediatric Infectious Diseases, University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL 2010-2014.
Certification: Internal Medicine, 2009; Pediatrics, 2010.
Joseph E. Qualls, PhD
examines the cellular and molecular facets of macrophage biology during health and disease. This white blood cell has an unprecedented role in regulating inflammation, pathogen elimination and maintaining tissue homeostasis. Specifically, Dr. Qualls’ laboratory focuses on amino acid utilization by macrophages, and how this affects the outcome of infection and inflammatory disease.
Immunology; innate immunity; macrophage biology; amino acid metabolism; intracellular pathogenesis
Dr. Qualls completed his undergraduate work in 2002, receiving his BA summa cum laude in biology from Thomas More College in Crestview Hills, Kentucky. He then joined the laboratory of Don Cohen, PhD, in the Department of Microbiology, Immunology and Molecular Genetics at the University of Kentucky, where he studied the role of macrophages and dendritic cells during the development of inflammatory bowel disease. After defending his thesis and receiving his PhD in 2007, Dr. Qualls began his postdoctoral training with Peter Murray, PhD, in the Department of Infectious Diseases and Immunology at St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital in Memphis, Tennessee, where his research helped to define the functional plasticity of macrophages in response to infection and cancer. During his postdoctoral training, Dr. Qualls received a Ruth L. Kirschstein National Research Service Award and actively participated as vice chair of Mentoring Activities within the Postdoctoral Association Council and as a member of the Education Programs Committee.
Dr. Qualls’ long-term goals are to understand the interplay between nutrition, metabolism and immune regulation during anti-pathogen defense. He has focused on how macrophages use the amino acid, L-arginine, to combat intracellular pathogens. As a starting point to appreciate broader principles of immunity and metabolism he established a map of L-arginine metabolism at the transcriptomic and metabolomic levels. His laboratory now uses this map to dissect how L-arginine generates anti-microbial effectors, how this pathway is regulated, and how microbes can hijack the pathway. His current research has two complementary tracks that retain initial focus on L-arginine metabolism in macrophages, but will eventually broaden into larger issues concerning metabolism in immunity.
Current research: Many groups have shown that T cell function is inhibited via byproducts of L-arginine metabolism or when extracellular L-arginine becomes limiting. In one project, the laboratory is focused on characterizing the in vivo function of L-arginine utilization by macrophages during mycobacterial infection, and how this affects anti-pathogen T cell function. In parallel, the laboratory is addressing the provocative role of L-arginine biosynthesis from L-citrulline during intracellular infection, and how this mechanism is regulated at the cellular level. While greatly unexplored, this pathway of amino acid recycling is vital as mice deficient in L-arginine biosynthesis, compared to normal mice, lack efficient control of both M. bovis BCG and M. tuberculosis infection.
BA: Thomas More College, Crestview Hills, KY, 2002.
PhD: University of Kentucky, Lexington, KY, 2007.
Postdoctoral Fellowship: St. Jude Children’s Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, 2012.
Qualls JE, Subramanian C, Smith AM, Balouzian L, DeFreitas AA, Shirey KA, Reutterer B, Kernbauer E, Stockinger S, Decker T, Miyairi I, Vogel SN, Rock CO, Murray PJ. Sustained generation of nitric oxide and control of mycobacterial infection requires argininosuccinate synthase 1. Cell Host & Microbe. 2012 Sept 13;12(3):313-23.
Smith AM, Qualls JE, O’Brien K, Balouzian L, Johnson PF, Schultz-Cherry S, Smale ST, Murray PJ. A Distal Enhancer in Il12b is the Target of Transcriptional Repression by the Stat3 Pathway and Requires the B-Zip Protein NFIL-3. Journal of Biological Chemistry. 2011 Jul 1;286(26):23582-90.
Qualls JE, Murray PJ. Tumor Macrophages: Protective and Pathogenic Roles in Cancer Development. Current Topics in Developmental Biology. 2011;94:309-28.
Qualls JE, Neale G, Smith AM, Koo MS, DeFreitas AA, Zhang H, Kaplan G, Watowich SS, Murray PJ. Arginine usage in mycobacteria-infected macrophages depends on autocrine-paracrine cytokine signaling. Science Signaling. 2010 Aug 17;3(135):ra62.
Qualls JE, Murray PJ. A double agent in cancer: stopping macrophages wounds tumors. Nature Medicine. 2010 Aug;16(8):863-4.
Qualls JE, Tuna H, Kaplan AM, Cohen DA. Dendritic Cell-Mediated Suppression of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Mice. Inflammatory Bowel Disease.
El Kasmi KC, Qualls JE (co-primary author), Pesce JT, Smith AM, Thompson RW, Henao-Tamayo M, Basaraba RJ, König T, Schleicher U, Koo M, Kaplan G, Fitzgerald KA, Tuomanen EI, Orne IM, Kanneganti T, Bogdan C, Wynn TA, and Murray PJ. TLR-induced Arginase 1 thwarts effective immunity against intracellular pathogens. Nature Immunology. 2008 Dec;9(12):1399-406.
Moreira LO, Smith AM, DeFreitas AA, Qualls JE, El Kasmi KC, Murray PJ. Modulation of adaptive immunity by different adjuvant-antigen combinations in mice lacking Nod2. Vaccine. 2008 Oct 29;26(46):5808-13.
Qualls JE, Kaplan AM, van Rooijen N, Cohen DA. Suppression of Experimental Colitis by Intestinal Mononuclear Phagocytes. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2006 Oct;80(4):802-15.
Burnett SH, Beus BJ, Avdiushko R, Qualls J, Kaplan AM, Cohen DA. Development of Peritoneal Adhesions in Macrophage Depleted Mice. Journal of Surgical Research. 2006 Apr;131(2):296-301.
Nancy M. Sawtell, PhD
Molecular mechanisms of herpes virus latency and reactivation; viral persistence; pathogenesis; animal models of disease
Visit the Sawtell Lab.
BA: Chemistry, Case Western Reserve University, 1975.
PhD: Pathology and Immunology, University of Cincinnati Medical College, Cincinnati, OH, 1986.
Farley N, Bernstein DI, Bravo FJ, Earwood J, Sawtell N, Cardin RD. Recurrent vaginal shedding of herpes simplex type 2 virus in the mouse and effects of antiviral therapy. Antiviral Res. 2010 May;86(2):188-95. Thompson RL, Preston CM, Sawtell NM. De novo synthesis of VP16 coordinates the exit from HSV latency in vivo. PLoS Pathog. 2009 Mar;5(3):e1000352. Currier MA, Gillespie RA, Sawtell NM, Mahller YY, Stroup G, Collins MH, Kambara H, Chiocca EA, Cripe TP. Efficacy and safety of the oncolytic herpes simplex virus rRp450 alone and combined with cyclophosphamide. Mol Ther. 2008 May;16(5):879-85. Thompson RL, Sawtell NM. Evidence that the herpes simplex virus type 1 ICP0 protein does not initiate reactivation from latency in vivo. J Virol. 2006 Nov;80(22):10919-30.
Sawtell NM, Thompson RL, Haas RL. Herpes simplex virus DNA synthesis is not a decisive regulatory event in the initiation of lytic viral protein expression in neurons in vivo during primary infection or reactivation from latency. J Virol. 2006 Jan;80(1):38-50. Sawtell NM. Detection and quantification of the rare latently infected cell undergoing herpes simplex virus transcriptional activation in the nervous system in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2005;292:57-72.
Sawtell NM, Thompson RL. Comparison of herpes simplex virus reactivation in ganglia in vivo and in explants demonstrates quantitative and qualitative differences. J Virol. 2004 Jul;78(14):7784-94.
Thompson RL, Shieh MT, Sawtell NM. Analysis of herpes simplex virus ICP0 promoter function in sensory neurons during acute infection, establishment of latency, and reactivation in vivo. J Virol. 2003 Nov;77(22):12319-30. Sawtell NM. Quantitative analysis of herpes simplex virus reactivation in vivo demonstrates that reactivation in the nervous system is not inhibited at early times postinoculation. J Virol. 2003 Apr;77(7):4127-38.
Sawtell NM, Thompson RL, Stanberry LR, Bernstein DI. Early intervention with high-dose acyclovir treatment during primary herpes simplex virus infection reduces latency and subsequent reactivation in the nervous system in vivo. J Infect Dis. 2001 Oct 15;184(8):964-71.
Elizabeth P. Schlaudecker, MD, MPH
uses epidemiology and clinical studies to explore the interplay between maternal and child immunologic responses to immunization. Past studies on respiratory viruses in Honduras have led to her current focus on immunologic responses to influenza. Her primary research goal is to improve the prevention of pediatric infectious diseases worldwide.
Global health; influenza; prevention of infant infection with maternal immunization
Elizabeth P. Schlaudecker, MD, MPH, is a faculty member in the Division of Infectious Diseases and the Global Health Center. Dr. Schlaudecker received her medical degree and master's in public health from the University of Cincinnati and completed a pediatrics residency and chief residency at Cincinnati Children's.
Dr. Schlaudecker was awarded a Fogarty International Clinical Research Fellowship from the National Institutes of Health in 2009, and she investigated the etiology and seasonality of viral respiratory disease in Honduran children under the age of five. She was awarded the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society Blue Ribbon Research award in 2011 for similar work in Bangladesh. After joining the faculty of Cincinnati Children's in 2011, she continued her influenza research with a Procter Scholars award. Dr. Schlaudecker has traveled to Honduras, the Dominican Republic, Costa Rica, Ecuador, Kenya, South Africa, and Cameroon as part of her clinical and research training.
MD: University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2003.
Residency: Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2006.
Chief Residency: Pediatrics, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2007.
Fellowship: Infectious Diseases, Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2011.
MPH: Public Health, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH, 2011.
Certification: Pediatrics, 2006.
Mary Allen Staat, MD, MPH Director, International Adoption Center
Director, International Adoption Center
Helicobacter pylori, rotavirus epidemiology, travel medicine and infectious diseases of international adoptees
Epidemiology of enteric infections and surveillance of infectious diseases
Mary Allen Staat, MD, MPH, is director of the International Adoption Center and a member of the Infectious Disease Division at Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center.
Dr. Staat is a board-certified pediatrician and is also board-certified in Infectious Disease and Preventive Medicine. She is an associate professor of Pediatrics at the University of Cincinnati and a faculty member of the Cincinnati Children's Hospital Research Foundation.
MD: University of Kentucky, Lexington, Ky., 1986.
MPH: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1991.
Residency: Pediatrics, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 1986-1989; Preventive Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Md., 1990-1994.
Fellowship: Infectious Diseases, Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, Texas, 1989-1990; Epidemiology, National Institutes of Health, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Rockville, Md., 1990-1993.
Certification: Pediatrics, 1989; Preventive Medicine, 1996; Pediatric Infectious Diseases, 1999.
Staat MA, Rice MA, Donauer S, Payne DC, Bresee JS, Mast TC, Curns AT, Cortese MM, Connelly B, McNeal M, Ward RL, Bernstein DI, Parashar UD, Salisbury S. Estimating the rotavirus hospitalization disease burden and trends, using capture-recapture methods. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Dec;29(12):1083-6.
Abdulla RY, Rice MA, Donauer S, Hicks KR, Poore D, Staat MA. Hepatitis A in internationally adopted children: screening for acute and previous infections. Pediatrics. 2010 Nov;126(5):e1039-44.
Staat MA, Stadler LP, Donauer S, Trehan I, Rice M, Salisbury S. Serologic testing to verify the immune status of internationally adopted children against vaccine preventable diseases. Vaccine. 2010 Nov 23;28(50):7947-55.
Fairbrother G, Cassedy A, Ortega-Sanchez IR, Szilagyi PG, Edwards KM, Molinari NA, Donauer S, Henderson D, Ambrose S, Kent D, Poehling K, Weinberg GA, Griffin MR, Hall CB, Finelli L, Bridges C, Staat MA; New Vaccine Surveillance Network (NVSN). High costs of influenza: Direct medical costs of influenza disease in young children. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 12;28(31):4913-9.
Mast TC, Walter EB, Bulotsky M, Khawaja SS, DiStefano DJ, Sandquist MK, Straus WL, Staat MA. Burden of childhood rotavirus disease on health systems in the United States. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2010 Feb;29(2):e19-25. Payne DC, Szilagyi PG, Staat MA, Edwards KM, Gentsch JR, Weinberg GA, Hall CB, Curns AT, Clayton H, Griffin MR, Fairbrother G, Parashar UD. Secular variation in United States rotavirus disease rates and serotypes: implications for assessing the rotavirus vaccination program. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Nov;28(11):948-53. Dickey M, Jamison L, Michaud L, Care M, Bernstein DI, Staat MA. Rotavirus meningoencephalitis in a previously healthy child and a review of the literature. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Apr;28(4):318-21.
Linam WM, Margolis PA, Staat MA, Britto MT, Hornung R, Cassedy A, Connelly BL. Risk factors associated with surgical site infection after pediatric posterior spinal fusion procedure. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol. 2009 Feb;30(2):109-16. Stadler LP, Mezoff AG, Staat MA. Hepatitis B virus screening for internationally adopted children. Pediatrics. 2008 Dec;122(6):1223-8.
Yee EL, Staat MA, Azimi P, Bernstein DI, Ward RL, Schubert C, Matson DO, Turcios-Ruiz RM, Parashar U, Widdowson MA, Glass RI. Burden of rotavirus disease among children visiting pediatric emergency departments in Cincinnati, Ohio, and Oakland, California, in 1999-2000. Pediatrics. 2008 Nov;122(5):971-7.
Mark C. Steinhoff, MD Director, Global Health Center
is interested in the broad effects of immunization in prevention of illness both in US and low-resource regions. The Mother’s Gift project of antenatal maternal immunization with influenza vaccine showed protection of mothers and their unvaccinated infants, as well as increased birth weights of the newborns. His team is currently evaluating antenatal influenza vaccine in 3,600 pregnant women in S. Asia to assess the broader effects of prevention of influenza. In Cincinnati, they are evaluating the safety and immunogenicity of influenza vaccines provided to mothers after delivery. They are also carrying out a prospective antepartum influenza vaccine study to assess the differences in immune response between healthy pregnant and nonpregnant women.
Director, Global Health Center
MD: University of Chicago, Chicago, Illinois, 1973.
Residency and Chief Residency: Pediatrics, University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
Fellowship, Infectious Diseases: University of Rochester Medical Center, Rochester, New York.
Certification: New York State Medical License, 1976; Pediatrics, 1978; Tamil Nadu Medical Council (India), 1980; Michigan Medical License, 1985; Maryland Medical License, 1986; Ohio Medical License, 2010; Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society, 1988.
Steinhoff MC, MacDonald N, Pfeifer D, Muglia LJ. Influenza vaccine in pregnancy: policy and research strategies. Lancet. 2014;383:1611-3.
Schlaudecker EP, Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, et al. IgA and neutralizing antibodies to influenza a virus in human milk: a randomized trial of antenatal influenza immunization. PLoS one. 2013;8:e70867.
Henkle E, Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, et al. The effect of exclusive breast-feeding on respiratory illness in young infants in a maternal immunization trial in Bangladesh. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2013;32:431-5.
Zhang T, Zhu Q, Zhang X, et al. The clinical characteristics and direct medical cost of influenza in hospitalized children: a five-year retrospective study in Suzhou, China. PLoS one. 2012;7:e44391.
Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, Roy E, et al. Neonatal outcomes after influenza immunization during pregnancy: a randomized controlled trial. CMAJ. 2012;184:645-53.
Schlaudecker EP, McNeal MM, Dodd CN, Ranz JB, Steinhoff MC. Pregnancy modifies the antibody response to trivalent influenza immunization. J Infect Dis. 2012;206:1670-3.
Omer SB, Goodman D, Steinhoff MC, et al. Maternal influenza immunization and reduced likelihood of prematurity and small for gestational age births: a retrospective cohort study. PLoS Med. 2011;8:e1000441.
Steinhoff MC, Omer SB, Roy E, et al. Influenza immunization in pregnancy--antibody responses in mothers and infants. N Engl J Med. 2010;362:1644-6.
Verghese VP, Friberg IK, Cherian T, et al. Community effect of Haemophilus influenzae type b vaccination in India. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009;28:738-40.
Zaman K, Roy E, Arifeen SE, et al. Effectiveness of maternal influenza immunization in mothers and infants. N Engl J Med. 2008;359:1555-64.
Ming Tan, PhD
is interested in understanding the initial steps of human norovirus infection and in developing strategies to prevent the infection. His research focuses on the structure-function relationship of norovirus capsid to understand how norovirus interacts with host cells through the viral receptors that have recently been identified as human histo-blood group antigens.
Chen YT, Tan M, Xia M, Hao N, Zhang XJ, Huang PW, Jiang X, Li XM, Rao ZH. Crystallography of a Lewis-binding norovirus, elucidation of strain-specificity selected by human histo-blood group antigen receptors. PLoS Pathogens. 2011.
Tan M, Jiang X. Norovirus-host interaction: multi-selections by the human histo-blood group antigens. Trends in Microbiology. 2011.Tan M, Fang PA, Xia M, Chachiyo T, Jiang W, Jiang X. Terminal modifications of norovirus P domain resulted in a new type of subviral particles, the small P particles. Virology. 2011 Feb 20;410(2):345-52.
Yang Y, Xia M, Tan M, Huang PW, Zhong WM, Pang XL, Lee BE, Meller J, Wang T, and Jiang X. Genetic and phenotypic characterization of GII-4 noroviruses isolated in 1987-2008. Journal of Virology. 2010 Sep; 84(18): 9595-607. Tan M, and Jiang X. Norovirus gastroenteritis, carbohydrate receptors and animal models. PLoS Pathogen. 2010 Aug 26;6(8). Tan M, Xia M, Chen Y, Bu W, Hegde RS, Meller J, Li X and Jiang X. Conservation of Receptor Binding Interfaces, Evidence of Human HBGA selection in Norovirus Evolution . PLoS One. 2009; 4(4): e5058. Tan M, Fang P, Chachiyo T, Xia M, Huang P, Fang Z, Jiang W and Jiang X. Noroviral P Particle: Structure, Function and Applications in Virus-Host Interaction . Virology. 2008; 382 (1):115-123. Jin M, Xie HP, Duan ZJ, Liu N, Zhang Q, Wu BS, Li HY, Cheng WX, Yang SH, Yu JM, Xu ZQ, Cui SX, Zhu L, Tan M, Jiang X and Fang ZY. Emergence of the GII4/2006b Variant and Recombinant Noroviruses in China . Journal of Medical Virology. 2008; 80(11):1997-2004. Tan M, Xia M, Cao S, Huang P, Farkas T, Meller J, Hegde RS, Li X, Rao Z and Jiang X. Elucidation of strain-specific interaction of a GII-4 norovirus with HBGA receptors by site-directed mutagenesis study . Virology. 2008; 379(2):324-334.
Noroviral P particle, a multifunctional platform for vaccine development. Principal Investigator. National Institutes of Health. June 2011 - May 2013.
Norwalk-like viruses and their receptors. Co-Investigator. National Institutes of Health. Sep 2010 - Apr 2015.Novel vaccine against norovirus. Co-Principal Investigator. National Institutes of Health. May 2010 - Apr 2015.
Sing Sing Way, MD, PhD Pauline and Lawson Reed Chair, Division of Infectious Diseases
is an infectious disease physician-scientist. He cares for infants and children with infection related illness, and provides consultation in the diagnosis and prevention diseases caused by communicable agents. Dr. Way supervises an active basic research laboratory that uses basic immunological approaches to investigate ways to boost host defense and protection against infection. If you have interest in this work, please contact Dr. Way.
Pauline and Lawson Reed Chair, Division of Infectious Diseases
Infectious diseases; prenatal infection; immunology
Dr. Way is an infectious disease physician-scientist. He cares for infants and children with infection related illness, and provides consultation in the diagnosis and prevention diseases caused by communicable agents. Dr. Way supervises an active basic research laboratory that uses basic immunological approaches to investigate ways to boost host defense and protection against infection. Ongoing projects investigate the immune basis responsible for enhanced susceptibility to infection during pregnancy, the immune pathogenesis of pregnancy complications that occur with maternal infection, and the basic signals required for stimulating immune cell activation.
Dr. Way trained in the combined MD/PhD program at the Albert Einstein College of Medicine, pediatric residency at the University of California San Francisco, and infectious disease fellowship at the University of Washington. During fellowship training, Dr. Way began investigating the basic immunology and immune pathogenesis of infectious diseases relevant to human, and in particular, infant and child health.
Dr. Way’s research has been supported by the National Institutes of Health since 2006. Dr. Way’s research has been described in many publications in numerous prestigious scientific journals including Nature, Cell Host & Microbe, PLoS Pathogens, and The Journal of Immunology. The past and ongoing work has also been recognized by numerous prestigious awards including the Infectious Diseases Society of America Wyeth Young Investigator Award, a Basil O’ Conner Award from the March of Dimes Foundation, and the Investigator in Pathogenesis of Infectious Diseases award from the Burroughs Wellcome Fund.
MD PhD: Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, NY, 1999.
Residency: University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA, 2001.
Fellowship: University of Washington, Seattle, WA, 2004.
Rowe JH, Ertelt JM, Xin L, Way SS. Pregnancy imprints regulatory memory that sustains anergy to fetal antigen. Nature. 490: 102-106. 2012.
Rowe JH, Ertelt JM, Xin L, Way SS. Listeria monocytogenes cytoplasmic entry induces fetal wastage by disrupting maternal Foxp3+ regulatory T cell-sustained fetal tolerance. PLoS Pathog. 8: e1002873. 2012.
Rowe JH, Ertelt JM, Way SS. Innate IFN-g is essential for Programmed death ligand-1-mediated T cell stimulation following Listeria monocytogenes infection. J Immunol. 189: 876-84. 2012.
Rowe JH, Ertelt JM, Way SS. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells, immune stimulation, and host defense against infection. Immunology. 136:1-10. 2011.
Ertelt JM, Johanns TM, Mysz MA, Nanton MR, Rowe JH, Aguilera MN, Way SS. Selective culling of high avidity antigen-specific CD4+ T cells after virulent Salmonella infection. Immunology. 134: 487-97. 2011.
Ertelt JM, Rowe JH, Mysz MA, Singh C, Roychowdhury M, Aguilera MN, Way SS. Foxp3+ regulatory T cells impede the priming of protective CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 187: 2569-77. 2011.
Rowe JH, Ertelt JM, Aguilera MN, Farrar MA, Way SS. Foxp3+ regulatory T cell expansion required for sustaining pregnancy compromises host defense against prenatal bacterial pathogens. Cell Host Microbe. 10:54-64. 2011.
Johanns TM, Law CY, Kalekar LA, O’Donnell H, Ertelt JM, Rowe JH, Way SS. Early eradication of persistent Salmonella infection primes antibody-mediated protective immunity to recurrent infection. Microbes Infect. 13: 322-330. 2011.
Han JY, Hanson DC, Way SS. Herpes Zoster and meningitis due to reactivation of varicella vaccine virus in a immunocompetent child. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 30:266-268. 2011.
Ertelt JM, Johanns TM, Rowe JH, Way SS. IL-21-independent pathogen-specific CD8+ T cell expansion, and IL-21-dependnent suppression of CD4+ T cell IL-17 production. Immunology. 131: 183-191. 2010.
Maternal regulatory T cells control the immune pathogenesis of prenatal infection. Principal Investigator in the Pathogenesis of Infectious Disease. Burroughs Wellcome Fund. 2012-2017.
The immune pathogenesis of prenatal Listeria monocytogenes infection. Principle Investigator. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). 2012-2017. R01-AI100934.
Regulatory T cells dictate the immunity during persistent Salmonella infection. Principle Investigator. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID). 2010-2015. R01-AI087830.
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