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The Division of Ophthalmology is home to specialists with a wide variety of backgrounds and areas of focus. As a team, this diversity makes us better prepared to care for your child’s unique needs. Learn more about our faculty and staff.
To contact a member of our team, please refer to the information provided on our Contact / Refer page.
Eniolami O. Dosunmu, MD 513-636-4751
Assistant Professor, UC Department of Ophthalmology
Anterior segment pathologies, pediatric glaucoma, amblyopia, and strabismus.
A summa cum laude graduate of Kentucky State University, Eniolami Dosunmu received her medical degree from The Ohio State University College of Medicine (OSUCOM), where she graduated, cum laude, in 2008. During her years at OSUCOM, she served on committees, and received many scholarships and awards including the Leonard Tow Humanism in Medicine Award, and The Ohio State University College of Medicine Service Award in her graduating class. She completed her internship and residency training at the Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minnesota. Her last year of residency, which was also a rotating chief year, allowed her to participate in medical student and resident education. She also received the Mayo International Health Program Scholarship which allowed her to pursue her goal of participating in International Medicine – she worked in Bomet, Kenya where she provided ophthalmic care and performed both adult and pediatric cataract surgeries. Dr. Dosunmu completed her fellowship training in pediatric ophthalmology at Duke University, Durham, NC where she performed research on pediatric glaucoma that earned her the American Association of Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus Research Fellow Award and the Pediatric Glaucoma and Cataract Family Association Award.
MD: The Ohio State University College of Medicine, Columbus, OH, 2008.
Internship: Preliminary Internal Medicine, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2009.
Residency: Ophthalmology, Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN, 2012.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology, Duke University, Durham, NC, 2013.
Dosunmu EO, Bakri SJ. Mimickers of age-related macular degeneration. Semin Ophthalmol. 2011 May;26(3):209-15.
Martin LT, Glass M, Dosunmu E, Martin PT. Altered expression of natively glycosylated alpha dystroglycan in pediatric solid tumors. Hum Pathol. 2007 Nov;38(11):1657-68.
Snyder CA, Selegue JP, Dosunmu E, Tice NC, Parkin S. C,O-dialkylation of Meldrum's acid: synthesis and reactivity of 1,3,7,7-tetramethyl-4H,10H-6,8,9-trioxa-2-thiabenz[f]azulen-5-one. Journal of Organic Chemistry. 2003 Sep 19;68(19):7455-9.
Michael E. Gray, MD Pediatric Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Pediatric Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology
Pediatric cataracts; strabismus; ROP
BA: Cornell University, Ithaca, NY, 2002.
MD: University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH, 2007.
Internship: Internal Medicine (PGY1), The Jewish Hospital, Cincinnati OH, 2007-2008.
Residency: Ophthalmology (PGY2-4), University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati OH, 2008-2011.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology (PGY5), Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH 2011-2012.
Motley WW, Melson A, Gray ME, Salisbury S. Outcomes of Strabismus Surgery for Esotropia in Children with Down Syndrome Compared with Matched Controls. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 2012 Jul;49(4):211-4.
Gray ME, Correa ZM, Augsburger JJ, Barrett W. Ciliary body melanoma with limited nodular extrascleral extension and diffuse iris-angle infiltration treated by whole anterior segment plaque radiotherapy. Int Ophthalmology. 2007 Aug;27(4):273-6.
Virginia A. Miraldi Utz, MD 513-636-4751
Pediatric eye diseases such as amblyopia, cataracts and strabismus; diagnosis and management of genetic eye disorders and syndromes (retinal dystrophies such as retinitis pigmentosa, Stargardt disease, ocular malformations and mitochondrial disorders); pediatric uveitis and ocular inflammation.
Dr. Virginia Miraldi Utz, MD, FAAP, is an assistant professor of pediatric ophthalmology at the Abrahamson Eye Institute of Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center. She completed her undergraduate degree in biochemistry and religious studies at The College of Wooster (Wooster, Ohio) and Kanda University (Chiba, Japan). She received her Doctor of Medicine from Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine in Cleveland, Ohio, where she was served as co-president of the Alpha Omega Alpha Society chapter. During her residency at University Hospitals Case Medical Center, she was awarded the Ocular Immunology and Uveitis Foundation Travel Grant for her basic science research in ocular microbiology and immunology and the Humanism in Ophthalmology Award. She completed her fellowship training in pediatric ophthalmology and adult strabismus at the Cleveland Clinic Cole Eye Institute. She recently completed additional clinical training in the field of ocular inflammation and uveitis preceptorship to serve patients with juvenile idiopathic arthritis and related disorders.
Dr. Miraldi Utz specializes in the management of pediatric eye disorders such as amblyopia, strabismus, and pediatric cataracts. She has special clinical and research interests in ocular inflammatory disease and ophthalmic genetic disorders, including ocular malformations and retinal dystrophies. Dr. Miraldi Utz has published multiple research articles in peer-reviewed journals, as well as having contributed abstracts and presentations at a number of professional association meetings. She is a peer reviewer for several journals, including Ophthalmic Genetics, Molecular Vision, and British Journal of Ophthalmology. She is a member of American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, American Academy of Ophthalmology, American Uveitis Society, Ophthalmic Genetic Study Club, International Society for Genetic Eye Diseases and Retinoblastoma, and Fellow of the American Academy of Pediatrics.
Medical School: Case Western Reserve University School of Medicine, Cleveland, OH.
Residency: Ophthalmology, University Hospitals Eye Institute Case Medical Center, Case Affiliated Hospitals Residency Program, Cleveland, Ohio.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus, Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic; Cleveland, Ohio.
Preceptorship: Pediatric Uveitis, The Retina Group, Columbus, OH; Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH.
Board Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology, 2013.
Utz VM, Coussa RG, Marino MJ, Chappelow AV, Pauer GJ, Hagstrom SA, Traboulsi EI. Predictors of Visual Acuity and Genotype-Phenotype Correlates in a Cohort of Patients with Stargardt Disease. Br J Ophthalmol. 2014 Apr:98(4):513-8.
Utz VM, Chappelow AV, Marino MJ, Beight CD, Sturgill-Short GM, Pauer GJ, Crowe S, Hagstrom SA, Traboulsi EI. Identification of Three ABCA4 Sequence Variations Exclusive to African-American Patients in a Cohort of Patients with Stargardt Disease. Am J Ophthalmol. 2013 Dec;156(6):1220-1227.
Utz VM, Beight CD, Marino MJ, Hagstrom SA, Traboulsi EI. Autosomal Dominant Retinitis Pigmentosa Secondary to Pre-mRNA Splicing Factor Gene PRPF31: Review of Disease Mechanism and Report of Family with a Novel 3-Base Insertion. Ophthalmic Gen. 2013 Dec;34(4):183-8.
Utz VM, Tang J. Ocular Manifestations of Antiphospholipid Syndrome. Br J Ophthalmol. 2011 Apr;95(4):454-9.
Mucci JJ, Utz VM, Galor A, Jeng BH. Recurrence Rates of Herpes Simplex Virus Keratitis in Contact Lens Wearers: Eye Contact Lens. Eye Contact Lens. 2009 Jul;35(4):185-7.
Utz VM, Krueger RR. Management of Irregular Astigmatism Following Rotationally Disoriented Free Cap After LASIK. J Refract Surg. 2008 Apr;24(4):383-91.
W. Walker Motley, MS, MD Pediatric Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Associate Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
UC Department of Ophthalmology
Strabismus; amblyopia; cataract; intraocular lens implantation; retinopathy of prematurity
BE: Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1992.
MS: Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1993.
MD: University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, 1997.
Internship: Good Samaritan Hospital, Cincinnati, OH, 1997-1998.
Residency: Ophthalmology, University of Cincinnati Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 1998-2001.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology, Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, Cincinnati, OH, 2001-2002.
Board Certification: Ophthalmology, 2003.
Golnik KC, Motley WW, Atilla H, Pilling R, Reddy A, Sharma P, Yadarola B, Zhao K. Ophthalmology surgical competency assessment rubric for strabismus surgery. JAAPOS.2012 Aug;16(4):318-21.
Motley WW, Melson AT, Gray ME, Salisbury SR. Outcomes of strabismus surgery for esotropia in children with Down syndrome compared with matched controls. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 2012 Jul-Aug;49(4):211-4.
Motley WW, Saltarelli DP. Ophthalmic manifestations of mosaic Down syndrome. JAAPOS 2011 Aug;15(4):362-6.
Motley WW, Asbury T. Strabismus. In: Riordan-Eva P, editor. Vaughn and Asbury’s General Ophthalmology. 18th edition, May 2011.
Motley WW, Melson AT. Pediatric intraoperative floppy iris syndrome associated with persistent pupillary membrane. JAAPOS 2011 Apr;15(2):196-7.
Motley WW, Melson AT, Mortensen JE. Pediatric Metarhizium anisopliae keratitis. JAAPOS 2011 Feb;15(1):101-3.
Motley WW, Vanderveen DK, West CE. Surgical Management of Infantile Cataracts in Dystrophic Epidermolysis Bullosa. JAAPOS 2010 Jun;14:283-4.
Chhabra MS, Motley WW, Mortenson JE. Eikenella Corrodens as a Causative Agent for Neonatal Conjunctivitis. JAAPOS 2008;12:524-5.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Best Evidence Statement Team - Motley WW, Yang M, West C. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Best Evidence Statement Retinopathy of Prematurity Screening. Cincinnati Children's online publication, Aug 27, 2007.
Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Best Evidence Statement Team - Lopper S, Motley WW, West C, Graham B, Passo M, Taylor J. Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center Best Evidence Statement Screening for Uveitis in Children with Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA). Cincinnati Children's online publication, Aug 15, 2007.
Andrea H. Prosser, MD 513-636-4751
Instructor, UC Department of Ophthalmology
MD: Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA, 2008.
Internship: Internal Medicine, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA.
Residency: Ophthalmology, Medical College of Georgia, Augusta, GA.
Terry L. Schwartz, MD Pediatric Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Professor, UC Department of Ophthalmology
BS: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1976.
MD: West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV, 1982.
Internship: Pediatrics, Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, 1982-1983.
Residency: Ophthalmology, Department of Ophthalmology, West Virginia University, Morgantown, WV, 1985-1988.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology and Adult Strabismus, University of Iowa Hospitals and Clinics, Iowa City, IA, 1988-1989.
Lusk K, Schwartz T. Management of Vision Impairment in Children. Chapter in: Practical Management of Pediatric Ocular Disorders and Strabismus. Eds. Traboulsi E, Utz V, and Ariss M. Springer, East Brunswick, NJ. 2014.
Kondo T, Tillman W, Schwartz T, Linberg J, Odom JV. Health Related Quality of Life after surgical removal of an eye. Ophthal Plast Reconstr Surg. 2013 Jan;29(1):51-6.
Shultz R, Schwartz T. Hydrocephalus. Chapter in: Challenging Cases in Pediatric Ophthalmology. Eds, Granet D, Baber L, Robbins SL. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics. 2012.
Schwartz, T. Medical Issues: Pathology and Its Implications. Chapter in: Foundations of Low Vision.2nd Edition. Eds. Corn A, Koenig A. Publisher: AFB Press, NY, 2009.
Connor IP, Odom JV, Schwartz T, Mendola JD. Monocular activation of V1 and V2 in of Amblyopic Adults Measured with functional MRI. J AAPOS. 2007 Aug;11(4):341-50.
Agrawal R, Conner IP, Odom JV, Schwartz TL, Mendola JD. Relating Binocular and Monocular Vision in Strabismic and Anisometropic Amblyopia. Arch Opthalmol. 2006 Jun;124(6):844-50.
Mendola JD, Conner IP, Roy A, Chan ST, Schwartz TL, Odom JV, Kwang KK. Voxel-Based Analysis of MRI Detects Abnormal Visual Cortex in Children and Adults with Amblyopia. Hum Brain Mapp. 2005 Jun;25(2):222-36.
Schwartz T; Bradford G. Be Careful What you Mandate: Vision Screening is Better Targeted and Less Expensive. Charleston Daily Mail. January 2003.
Schwartz T. What do you tell parents who ask “Why My Child Cannot Read Well?” American Orthoptic Journal: 52; 2002: 31-34.
Macsai M, Schwartz T, et al. Tyrosinemia type II: nine cases of ocular signs and symptoms. American Journal of Ophthalmology. 2001; 132(4): 522 – 527.
Constance E. West, MD Pediatric Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Associate Professor, UC Department of Ophthalmology
BS: Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 1980.
MD: University of Massachusetts Medical School, North Worcester, MA, 1986.
Internship: St. John's Mercy Medical Center, St. Louis, MO, 1986-1987.
Residency: Ophthalmology,Barnes Hospital, Washington University Medical Center, St. Louis, MO, 1987-1990.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus, Wilmer Ophthalmological Institute, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, 1990-1991.
Qu J, Wang Y, Tong Y, Zhou X, Zhao F, Yang L, Zhang S, Zhang J, West CE, Guan MX. Leber’s hereditary optic neuropathy affects only female matrilineal relatives in two Chinese Families. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2010; 51: 4906-12.
Motley WW 3rd, Vanderveen DK, West CE. Surgical management of infantile cataracts in dystrophic epidermolysis bullosa. J AAPOS. 2010 Jun;14(3):283-4.
Qu J, Zhou X, Zhang J, Zhao F, Sun YH, Tong Y, Wei QP, Cai W, Yang L, West CE. Extremely low penetrance of Leber's hereditary optic neuropathy in 8 Han Chinese families carrying the ND4 G11778A mutation. Ophthalmology. 2009;116:558-564 e3.
Bollinger KE, Kattouf V, Arthur B, Weiss AH, Kivlin J, Kerr N, West CE, Kipp M, Traboulsi EI. Hypermetropia and esotropia in myotonic dystrophy. J AAPOS. 2008; 12:69-71.
Li R, Qu J, Zhou X, Tong Y, Hu Y, Qian Y, Lu F, Mo JQ, West CE, Guan MX. The mitochondrial tRNA(Thr) A15951G mutation may influence the phenotypic expression of the LHON-associated ND4 G11778A mutation in a Chinese family. Gene. 2006 Jul 5;376(1):79-86.
Qu J, Li R, Zhou X, Tong Y, Lu F, Qian Y, Hu Y, Mo JQ, West CE, Guan M-X. The Novel A4435G Mutation in the Mitochondrial tRNAMet May Modulate the Phenotypic Expression of the LHON-Associated ND4 G11778A Mutation. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2006; 47: 475-483.
Michael B. Yang, MD Director, Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Director, Pediatric Ophthalmology
Cataract, glaucoma, pediatric and adult strabismus, surgery for nystagmus with abnormal head posture, and retinopathy of prematurity.
BS: Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1988.MD: Harvard Medical School-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Joint Program in Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA, 1993.
Internship: Internal Medicine, St. Elizabeth Hospital, Boston, MA, 1993-1994.Residency: Ophthalmology, Estelle Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California/LosAngeles County Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, 1994-1997.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology, W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1998-1999.
Board Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology, 2000. Recertified 2010.
Chiang MF, Melia M, Buffenn AN, Lambert SR, Recchia FM, Simpson JL, Yang MB. Detection of Clinically Significant Retinopathy of Prematurity Using Wide-Angle Digital Retinal Photography: a Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2012 Jun;119(6):1272-80.
Simpson JL, Melia M, Yang MB, Buffenn AN, Chiang MF, Lambert SR. Current Role of Cryotherapy in Retinopathy of Prematurity: a Report by the American Academy of Ophthalmology. Ophthalmology. 2012 Apr;119(4):873-7.
Hao J, Yang MB, Liu H, Li SK. Distribution of Propranolol in Periocular Tissues: A Comparison of Topical and Systemic Administration. J Ocul Pharmacol Ther 27:453-9, 2011.
Yang MB, Donovan EF. Risk Analysis and Alternative Protocols for Reduction of Screening for Retinopathy of Prematurity. J AAPOS. 2009;13(6)-539-45.
Yang MB. Extrusion of non-absorbable suture from a superior oblique tuck without loss of surgical effect. Binocul Vis and Strabismus Q. 2009;24(2):99-102.
Yang MB. A Pilot Study Using "ROPtool" to Quantify Plus Disease in Retinopathy of Prematurity. J AAPOS. 2007;11:630-1.
Wolf AB, Yang MB, Archer SM. Postoperative Myositis in Reoperated Extraocular Muscles. J AAPOS. 2007;11(4):373-6.
Yang MB. Retinopathy of Prematurity in Infants with Birth Weight ≥ 1250 Grams. J AAPOS. 2007;11(2):208-10.
Yang MB, Donovan EF, Wagge JR. Race, Gender, and Clinical Risk Index for Babies (CRIB) Score as Predictors of Severe Retinopathy of Prematurity. J AAPOS. 2006;10:253-61.
Adam H. Kaufman, MD Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology 513-475-7295
Ophthalmologist, Division of Pediatric Ophthalmology
Corneal and external diseases, uveitis, ocular immunology and cataracts
MD: University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, Cincinnati, OH 1987.
Residency: Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center, Columbia University, New York, NY.
Fellowship: Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA.
Certification: Ophthalmology, 1994.
Baughman RP, Lower EE, Kaufman AH. Ocular sarcoidosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2010 Aug;31(4):452-62.
Baughman RP, Lower EE, Bradley DA, Raymond LA, Kaufman A. Etanercept for refractory ocular sarcoidosis: results of a double-blind randomized trial. Chest. 2005 Aug;128(2):1062-47.
Bradley D, Baughman RP, Raymond L, Kaufman AH. Ocular manifestations of sarcoidosis. Semin Respir Crit Care Med. 2002 Dec;23(6):543-8.
Motley WW 3rd, Kaufman AH, West CE. Pediatric airbag-associated ocular trauma and endothelial cell loss. J AAPOS. 2003 Dec;7(6):380-3.
Cionni RJ, Barros MG, Kaufman AH, Osher RH. Cataract surgery without preoperative eyedrops. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2003 Dec;29(12):2281-3.
Hutchins RK, Kaufman AH, Augsburger JJ. Perfluoro-octane internal tamponade when using a temporary keratoprosthesis during retinal detachment repair. Retina. 2003 Feb;23(1):106-10.
Zalta AH, Sweeney CP, Zalta AK, Kaufman AH. Intracameral tissue plasminogen activator use in a large series of eyes with valved glaucoma drainage implants. Arch Ophthalmol. 2002 Nov;120(11):1487-93.
Kaufman A, Medow N, Phillips R, Zaidman G, Wagner RS. Treatment of epibulbar limbal dermoids. J Ophthalmic Nurs Technol. 1999 Jul-Aug;18(4):172-6.
Drew AF, Schiman HL, Kombrinck KW, Bugge TH, Degen JL, Kaufman AH. Persistent corneal haze after excimer laser photokeratectomy in plasminogen-deficient mice. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2000 Jan;41(1):67-72.
Kaufman A, Medow N, Phillips R, Zaidman G. Treatment of epibulbar limbal dermoids. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1999 May-Jun;36(3):136-40.
Sarah L. Lopper, OD, FAAO Pediatric Optometrist, Division of Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Pediatric Optometrist, Division of Ophthalmology
Amblyopia; low vision; children with special needs; JIA/iritis
BS: Indiana University, Bloomington, IN, 1996.
OD: The Ohio State University College of Optometry, Columbus, OH, 2000.
Residency: Ocular Disease, Cincinnati Eye Institute, Cincinnati, OH, 2000-2001.
Certification: National Board of Examiners in Optometry; Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry (FAAO), 2007.
Melissa L. Rice, OD Pediatric Optometrist, Division of Ophthalmology 513-636-4751
Pediatric Optometrist, Division of Ophthalmology
Amblyopia, strabismus, binocular vision.
BS: Indiana University, 1997.
OD: Indiana University School of Optometry, 1999.
Residency: Pediatric Optometry and Binocular Vision, New England College of Optometry, 1999-2000.
Certification: National Board of Examiners in Optometry; Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry, 2002.
Post-Graduate: Postdoctoral Certificate, Clinical Research Training Program, 2007.
Schornack M, Rice M, Hodge D. Tonopen XL Assessment of intraocular pressure through silicone hydrogel contact lenses. Eye Contact Lens. 2012 Sep;38(5):270-3.
Rice ML, Leske DA, Smestad CE, Holmes JM. Results of ocular dominance testing depend on assessment method. J AAPOS. 2008 Aug;12(4):365-9.
Rice ML, Leske DA, Holmes JM. Comparison of the amblyopia treatment study HOTV and electronic-early treatment of diabetic retinopathy study visual acuity protocols in children aged 5 to 12 years. Am J Ophthalmol. 2004 Feb;137(2):278-82.
Rice ML, Birch EE, Holmes JM. An abbreviated reading speed test. Optom Vis Sci. 2005 Feb; 82(2):128-33.
Cotter SA, Chu RH, Chandler DL, Beck RW, Holmes JM, Rice ML, Hertle RW, Birch EE, Moke PS. Reliability of the electronic early treatment diabetic retinopathy study testing protocol in children 7 to less than 13 years old. Am J Ophthalmol. 2003 Oct;136(4):655-61.
Daniele P. Saltarelli, OD, FAAO Pediatric Optometrist 513-636-4751
BS: McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario 1995.
OD: New England College of Optometry, Boston, MA, 2000.
Residency: Primary Care Optometry / Ocular Disease, Illinois Eye Institute, Chicago, IL, 2000-2001.
Certification: National Board of Examiners in Optometry.
Fellow of the American Academy of Optometry, 2004.
Motley WW, Saltarelli DP. Ophthalmic manifestations of mosaic Down syndrome. JAAPOS. 2011 Aug;15(4):362-6.
Saltarelli, D. Treating Pediatric Aphakia with Hypertransmissible GP Lenses. Horizons (North America). 2009;1(1):2-3.
Saltarelli DP. Hyper oxygen-permeable rigid contact lenses as an alternative for the treatment of pediatric aphakia. Eye Contact Lens. 2008 Mar;34(2):84-93.
Saltarelli D, Wildsoet C, Nickla D, Troilo D. Susceptibility to form-deprivation myopia in chicks is not altered by an early experience of axial myopia. Optom Vis Sci. 2004 Feb;81(2):119-26.
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