• Causes of Disorders

    The cause of a communication disorder is not always known. However, common causes include abnormal structures (oral, pharyngeal, or laryngeal), oral-motor dysfunction, neurological problems or brain injury, learning problems, and hearing loss. Causes of feeding or swallowing disorders include structural abnormalities and neurological problems.

    High-Risk Populations

    Conditions that contribute to communication or feeding / swallowing disorders include:

    • Hearing loss or deafness
    • Family history of hearing loss or deafness 
    • History of chronic otitis media (ear infections)
    • Congenital auditory anomalies
    • Auditory processing disorder (APD)
    • Long-term hospitalization or stay in an orphanage
    • Sensory deprivation (hearing or vision)
    • Tracheostomy
    • Ventilator dependency
    • Tracheal stenosis
    • Vocal fold pathology, paralysis or paresis
    • Traumatic brain injury (TBI) 
    • Brainstem injuries
    • Neurological disease, injury or dysfunction
    • Cranial nerve dysfunction
    • Prematurity or birth trauma
    • Cleft palate or submucous cleft
    • Dental malocclusion
    • Macroglossia (large tongue)
    • Tongue thrust 
    • Enlarged tonsils
    • History of significant feeding or swallowing difficulties
    • Choking on foods
    • Excessive drooling
    • Chronic open-mouth posture or front-tongue position
    • Autism
    • Psychosis or schizophrenia
  • Contact Us

    Kids hugging each other.
    For more information about the Division of Speech-Language Pathology at Cincinnati Children’s, contact us at 513-636-4341 or at speech.pathology@cchmc.org.