Mild abnormalities occasionally correct themselves early in childhood. Children with moderate to severe abnormalities may require surgery, which is usually not performed in children younger than age 8. Since children have softer cartilage and more flexible bones than adolescents, the operation is easier to perform on them and the cosmetic results are superior. However, good outcomes are now being obtained even in young adults.
Infants and very young children are usually not considered for operation unless very severe abnormalities or other illnesses necessitate earlier surgery.
Both traditional open surgery (Ravitch repair) and minimally invasive techniques (Nuss repair) can be used to correct pectus excavatum. Both techniques generally improve chest appearance. They also improve rib and sternum configuration as well as cardiopulmonary (heart and lung) functioning. Both techniques result in a return to normal activity and improved exercise tolerance within the first few months following surgery.
The determination of which surgical approach to use is based on a number of factors. These factors include:
- The surgeon's level of expertise with each of these two techniques
- The severity of the defect and its symmetry (in the middle or more to one side)
- The child's age
Open surgery in boys is performed through a horizontal incision on the anterior chest wall, usually just below the nipple area. In girls, this incision is placed to coincide with the lower breast margins when possible. The lower four to five cartilages that are abnormal are removed, leaving the perichondrium (the lining that envelops the outer portion of rib cartilage). This allows the cartilage to regrow in its new position. The sternum is supported in its correct position by a thin flat metal bar that corrects and stabilizes it during healing. The incision is usually closed with internal sutures that minimize scarring.
The length of hospital stay following surgery is typically four to five days. Children often experience some discomfort for several weeks. Postoperative epidural analgesia catheters or intravenous narcotics may be required for several days following surgery. Milder pain is managed with oral pain medication.
Outpatient surgery to remove the supporting bar is usually performed one year later.
Cosmetic and physical outcomes in patients who have undergone surgery in mid-childhood or early adolescence are good to excellent, with less than 5 percent requiring another operation for significant pectus excavatum recurrence. An additional 5 percent to 10 percent of patients have some residual (remaining) abnormalities that sometimes worsen with adolescence.
Minimally Invasive Surgery (Nuss Procedure)
Minimally invasive surgical techniques have been used for more than two decades. With this approach, two small lateral incisions are made. A bar that has been shaped to the desired chest contour is inserted into and across the chest and positioned below the sternum. This is done using the guidance of an endoscope (instrument used to visualize the inside of the chest). The bar is held in place by sutures and by a small metal plate that prevents rotation of the bar as the chest is reshaped. This procedure is similar to placing braces on teeth, which facilitates their correct realignment.
Length of hospital stay is usually four to five days. Children often experience more discomfort initially with the minimally invasive procedure. Postoperative epidural analgesia catheters or intravenous narcotics may be required for several days following surgery. Milder pain is managed with oral pain medication. Activity is slowly resumed, with limitations on exercise until the bar is healed in place, at least three months.
In contrast to the brief duration (one year) in which the bar is left in place with open surgery, with this approach it is left in place for at least three years, allowing the chest to remold. The bar is then removed during outpatient surgery.
In our experience, short-term outcomes with minimally invasive surgery are at least comparable to outcomes with open surgery. They result in a better cosmetic outcome with less scarring (due to smaller incisions), good restoration of normal chest contour, and good muscle function. Long-term outcomes currently appear to be as good as those with traditional open surgery.
What Can Be Expected Following Surgery?
There is no need to restrict exercise or activity after the initial healing period of three months. Patients are encouraged to exercise in order to improve overall chest growth and contour and to increase the strength of their chest muscles.