There are two treatment options: hormonal and surgical.
In cases in which both sides are undescended, hormonal treatment may aid the testicles’ descent into the scrotum. The hormone human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is given as an injection over several weeks. It cures undescended testes about 10 percent to 15 percent of the time. Surgery may still be indicated.
There are several possible procedures to correct this condition depending upon the location of the testicle and the distance to the scrotal sac.
1. An orchidopexy is an outpatient (patient does not need to stay in hospital) procedure which requires general anesthesia. This is performed when the surgeon can palpate (feel) the testicle in the groin. A small incision (cut) is made in the groin (area where the leg attaches to the body); the testicle is located, freed from restrictive tissues, positioned and anchored in the scrotum. The passage way is then stitched closed to prevent re-ascent.
2. A laparoscopic orchidopexy procedure is frequently performed when the testicle is nonpalpable (cannot be felt on physical exam). The testicle may be located in the abdomen, may be absent or very small (atrophic).
Occasionally, the testicle is too severely malformed to be saved. It may have twisted sometime prior to the child's birth and lost its blood supply. During surgery, the remaining non-functional tissue is removed. The other testicle is secured in its scrotal sac to prevent testicular torsion of that testicle. If the malformed testicle is removed, a prosthesis (an artificial replacement) can be placed in the scrotum after puberty.
3. A testicular auto-transplant is indicated when the testicle is located very high in the abdomen and the blood vessels and other necessary structures are neither ample nor elastic enough to be stretched to the scrotum. The testicle must be "auto-transplanted" into the scrotum with all the necessary blood vessels and structures first cut and then reconnected (anastomosed).