Ventricular septal defect (VSD). Oxygenated blood from the left ventricle shunts via the hole into the right ventricle. This volume load causes enlargement of both ventricles and the pulmonary artery, and exposes the right ventricle and pulmonary arteries to abnormally high pressures.
Patch closure of ventricular septal defect. When a large VSD requires surgical closure a patch is typically used. Common materials for patches include Dacron, Gore-tex™, or pericardium.