AALL1331: Risk-Stratified Randomized Phase III Testing of Blinatumomab (IND# 117467, NSC#765986) in First Relapse of Childhood B-Lymphoblastic Leukemia (B-ALL)

Why are we doing this research?

This randomized phase III trial compares how well blinatumomab works compared with standard combination chemotherapy in treating patients with B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia that has returned after a period of improvement (relapsed). Monoclonal antibodies, such as blinatumomab, can block cancer growth by finding cancer cells and helping to kill them or carrying cancer-killing substances to them. It is not yet known whether standard combination chemotherapy is more effective than blinatumomab in treating relapsed B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

Primary Objectives

I. To compare disease free survival (DFS) of high-risk (HR) and intermediate-risk (IR) relapse B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL) patients who are randomized following induction block 1 chemotherapy to receive either two intensive chemotherapy blocks or two 5-week blocks of blinatumomab (HR/IR randomization).

II. To compare the DFS of low risk (LR) relapse B-ALL patients who are randomized following block 1 chemotherapy to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus blinatumomab (LR randomization).

Secondary Objectives

I. To compare overall survival (OS) of HR and IR relapse B-ALL patients who are randomized following induction block 1 chemotherapy to receive either two intensive chemotherapy blocks or two 5-week blocks of blinatumomab (HR/IR randomization).

II. To compare OS of LR relapse B-ALL patients who are randomized following block 1 chemotherapy to receive either chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy plus blinatumomab (LR randomization).

Tertiary Objectives

I. To compare the rates of minimal residual disease (MRD) >= 0.01% at the end of block 2 and block 3 for HR and IR relapse B-ALL patients in HR/IR randomization.

II. To estimate, for treatment failure (TF) patients not previously receiving blinatumomab, the hematologic complete remission rate (CR), rate of MRD < 0.01%, and proportion able to proceed to hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) in CR after treatment with blinatumomab.

III. To assess the feasibility and safety of rapid taper of immune suppression for the subset of HSCT patients with MRD >= 0.01% pre- and/or post-HSCT with no acute graft versus host disease (aGVHD).

IV. To evaluate blinatumomab pharmacokinetics (PK) and explore exposure-response relationships for measures of safety and effectiveness.

Study Type: Interventional

Allocation: Randomized
Endpoint Classification: Efficacy Study
Intervention Model: Parallel Assignment
Masking: Open Label
Primary Purpose: Treatment

Who can participate?

Inclusion Criteria

  • First relapse of B-ALL with or without extramedullary disease
  • No waiting period for patients who relapse while receiving standard maintenance therapy
  • Patients who relapse on frontline therapy in phases other than maintenance must have fully recovered from the acute toxic effects of all prior chemotherapy, immunotherapy, or radiotherapy prior to entering this study
  • Cytotoxic therapy: at least 14 days since the completion of cytotoxic therapy with the exception of hydroxyurea, which is permitted up to 24 hours prior to the start of protocol therapy, or maintenance chemotherapy
  • Biologic (anti-neoplastic) agent: at least 7 days since the completion of therapy with a biologic agent; for agents that have known adverse events occurring beyond 7 days after administration, this period must be extended beyond the time during which adverse events are known to occur
  • Stem cell transplant or rescue: patients has not had a prior stem cell transplant or rescue
  • Patient has not had prior treatment with blinatumomab
  • Patient has not received prior relapse-directed therapy (i.e., this protocol is intended as INITIAL treatment of first relapse)
  • Patients must have a performance status corresponding to Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) scores of 0, 1, or 2; use Karnofsky for patients > 16 years of age and Lansky for patients =< 16 years of age
  • Creatinine clearance or radioisotope glomerular filtration rate (GFR) >= 70 mL/min/1.73 m^2 or a serum creatinine based on age/gender as follows:
    • 1 to < 2 years: =< 0.6 mg/dL
    • 2 to < 6 years: =< 0.8 mg/dL
    • 6 to < 10 years: =< 1 mg/dL
    • 10 to < 13 years: =< 1.2 mg/dL
    • 13 to < 16 years: =< 1.5 mg/dL (males) and =< 1.4 mg/dL (females)
    • >= 16 years: =< 1.7 mg/dL (males) and =< 1.4 mg/dL (females)
  • Direct bilirubin < 3.0 mg/dL
  • Shortening fraction of >= 27% by echocardiogram, or
  • Ejection fraction of >= 50% by radionuclide angiogram

Exclusion Criteria

  • Patients with Philadelphia chromosome positive/breakpoint cluster region protein (BCR)-Abelson murine leukemia viral oncogene homolog 1 (ABL1)+ ALL are not eligible
  • Patients with Burkitt leukemia/lymphoma or mature B-cell leukemia are not eligible
  • Patients with T-lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)/lymphoblastic lymphoma (T-LL) are not eligible
  • Patients with B-lymphoblastic lymphoma (B-LL) are not eligible
  • Patients with known optic nerve and/or retinal involvement are not eligible; patients who are presenting with visual disturbances should have an ophthalmologic exam and, if indicated, a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to determine optic nerve or retinal involvement
  • Patients known to have one of the following concomitant genetic syndromes: Down syndrome, Bloom syndrome, ataxia-telangiectasia, Fanconi anemia, Kostmann syndrome, Shwachman syndrome or any other known bone marrow failure syndrome
  • Patients with known human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection
  • Patients with known allergy to mitoxantrone, cytarabine, or both etoposide and etoposide phosphate (Etopophos)
  • Lactating females who plan to breastfeed
  • Patients who are pregnant; pregnancy test is required for female patients of childbearing potential
  • Sexually active patients of reproductive potential who have not agreed to use an effective contraceptive method for the duration of their study participation
  • Patients with pre-existing significant central nervous system pathology that would preclude treatment with blinatumomab, including: history of severe brain injury, dementia, cerebellar disease, organic brain syndrome, psychosis, coordination/movement disorder, or autoimmune disease with CNS involvement are not eligible; patients with a history of cerebrovascular ischemia/hemorrhage with residual deficits are not eligible; (patients with a history of cerebrovascular ischemia/hemorrhage remain eligible provided all neurologic deficits have resolved)
  • Patients with uncontrolled seizure disorder are not eligible; (patients with seizure disorders that do not require antiepileptic drugs, or are well controlled with stable doses of antiepileptic drugs remain eligible)

Ages

  • From 1 to 30 years old

Conditions

  • Leukemia ALL Relapse
  • Adult - Leukemia ALL Relapse

Contact

Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center
Division of Hematology/Oncology
3333 Burnet Ave.
Cincinnati OH 45229-3039


Phone: 513-636-2799
cancer@cchmc.org