PhD: Medical Physiology, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1968.
MD: Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, 1970.
Residency: Pediatrics, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC, 1970 to 1972.
Fellowship: Pediatric Metabolism, National Institute of Arthritis, Metabolism, and Digestive Diseases, Bethesda, MD, 1972 to 1974; Pediatric Pulmonology, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH; Rainbow Babies and Children's Hospital, Cleveland, OH, 1974 to 1976.
Certification: Pediatrics, 1976; Pediatric Pulmonology, 1986, 1997.