BS: Biomedical Engineering, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 1988.
MD: Harvard Medical School-Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Joint Program in Health Sciences and Technology, Boston, MA, 1993.
Internship: Internal Medicine, St. Elizabeth Hospital, Boston, MA, 1993-1994.
Residency: Ophthalmology, Estelle Doheny Eye Institute, University of Southern California/LosAngeles County Hospital, Los Angeles, CA, 1994-1997.
Fellowship: Pediatric Ophthalmology, W.K. Kellogg Eye Center, University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, 1998-1999.
Board Certification: American Board of Ophthalmology, 2000; Recertified 2011.