Authors and Affiliations: Tetsuo Shodaa, Ting Wena, Julie M. Caldwella, Margaret H. Collinsb, John A. Bessea, Garrett A. Osswalda, J. Pablo Aboniaa, Nicoleta C. Arvac, Dan Atkinsd, Kelley E. Capocellie, Evan S. Dellonf, Gary W. Falkg, Nirmala Gonsalvesh, Sandeep K. Guptai, Ikuo Hiranoh, Vincent A. Mukkadaj, Philip E. Putnamj, Rachel M. Sheridanb, Rudman Spergel AKk, Jonathan M. Spergell, Joshua B. Wechslerm, Guang-Yu Yangn, Seema S. Aceveso, Glenn T. Furutap and Marc E. Rothenberga on behalf of the Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR)*; aDivision of Allergy and Immunology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, bDivision of Pathology, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, cDepartment of Pathology, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, dSection of Pediatric Allergy and Immunology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, eDepartment of Pathology, Children’s Hospital Colorado, fDivision of Gastroenterology and Hepatology, University of North Carolina School of Medicine, gDivision of Gastroenterology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, hDivision of Gastroenterology & Hepatology, Northwestern University, iDivision of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, University of Illinois College of Medicine/Children's Hospital of Illinois, jDivision of Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine and Cincinnati Children's Hospital Medical Center, kAllergy, Asthma and Airway Biology Branch Division of Allergy, Immunology and Transplantation, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, NIH, lDivision of Allergy and Immunology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine/Children's Hospital of Philadelphia, mGastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition, Ann & Robert H. Lurie Children’s Hospital of Chicago, nDepartment of Pathology and Laboratory Medicine, Northwestern University, oDivision of Allergy Immunology, University of California-San Diego, Rady Children’s Hospital, San Diego, pSection of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, Digestive Health Institute, Children's Hospital Colorado.
Background: Eosinophilic gastritis (EG) is a clinicopathologic disorder with marked gastric eosinophilia and clinical symptoms. There is an unmet need in EG for more precise diagnostic tools. We aimed to develop tissue- and blood-based diagnostic platforms for EG.
Methods: Patients with EG and non-EG controls were enrolled across 9 Consortium of Eosinophilic Gastrointestinal Disease Researchers (CEGIR)-associated sites. An EG Diagnostic Panel (EGDP; gastric transcript subset) and EG blood biomarker panel (protein multiplex array) were analyzed. The EGDP18 scores were derived from the expression of 18 highly dysregulated genes and Blood EG scores from dysregulated cytokines/chemokine levels.
Results: Gastric biopsies and blood samples from 185 subjects (EG 74, non-EG 111) were analyzed. The EGDP a) identified patients with active EG (P < .01, AUC ≥0.95); b) effectively monitored disease activity in longitudinal samples (P < .01); c) highly correlated in same-patient samples (antrum vs. body, r = 0.85, P < .01); and d) correlated with gastric peak eosinophil levels (r = -0.83, P < .01), periglandular circumferential collars (r = -0.73, P < .01), and endoscopic nodularity (r = -0.45, P < .01). For blood-based platforms, eotaxin-3, TARC, IL-5, and TSLP levels were significantly increased. Blood EG scores a) distinguished patients with EG from non-EG controls (P < .01, AUC ≥0.91); b) correlated with gastric eosinophil levels (P < .01); and c) correlated with EGDP18 scores (P < .01). Plasma eotaxin-3 strongly associated with EGDP18 score and gastric CCL26 expression (P < .01).
Conclusion: We developed tissue- and blood-based platforms for assessment of EG and uncovered robust associations between specific gastric molecular profiles and histologic and endoscopic features, providing insight and tools for this emerging rare disease.