Reasons for Concern
When the intestine develops an ulcer, significant bleeding can occur, resulting in anemia (low red blood cell count). Rapid blood loss can be associated with shock, which is life-threatening. Intestinal obstruction and serious infection may also occur.
Risk Factors for Meckel's Diverticulum
Complications from Meckel's diverticulum can develop at any age, and it is estimated that there is a 4 percent to 25 percent lifetime risk of complications occurring. However, this risk decreases with age. Infants and children appear to be at highest risk for complications, with more than 50 percent of symptomatic Meckel's diverticula occurring in children less than 2 years of age.
An increased incidence of Meckel's diverticula is seen in association with other congenital anomalies, including esophageal atresia, imperforate anus (anorectal malformations), omphalocele, Crohn's disease, and various neurological and cardiovascular malformations.
Signs and Symptoms of Meckel's Diverticulum
Symptoms occur only if the diverticulum bleeds, becomes infected or causes an obstruction, and they are twice as common in males than in females. The symptom most commonly seen in young children is painless rectal bleeding. The color of blood may vary from bright red (35 percent) to dark red or maroon (40 percent) to black tarry (7 percent).
While symptoms of infection and blockage generally occur before adolescence, they can appear at any time in life and can cause mild to severe abdominal pain and discomfort.
Diagnosis of Meckel's Diverticulum
Rectal bleeding requires a systematic approach to evaluation. When patients are stable and when bleeding is slow or episodic, a variety of tests may be performed.
- Blood test: This is done to determine if anemia or infection is present. A stool sample may also be obtained to check for frank (obvious) or occult (hidden) blood.
- Meckel's scan: A radioactive substance called technetium, which is preferentially absorbed by stomach tissue, is injected into the bloodstream through an intravenous (IV) line. This substance can be seen on X-rays and indicates areas where acid-secreting stomach tissue exists, including that seen in the Meckel's diverticulum.
- Rectosigmoidoscopy: A small, flexible tube with a camera on the end is inserted into the rectum and sigmoid colon (last part of the large intestine). The inside of the rectum and large intestine are evaluated for bleeding, blockage and other problems.
- Barium enema and small bowel series: This procedure is performed to examine the large intestine, thereby helping to rule out other possible causes of gastrointestinal bleeding. A chalky fluid called barium, which coats the inside of the colon so that it shows up on X-rays, is given into the rectum as an enema. These X-rays show strictures (narrowed areas), obstructions, and other problems.
With significant and ongoing blood loss, additional tests such as bleeding scan, colonoscopy, and angiography may be performed. In rare cases, life-threatening blood loss may necessitate urgent exploratory surgery.
Treatment for Meckel's Diverticulum
A symptomatic Meckel's diverticulum should be resected (removed) with an operation. This operation can be performed using either an open or a laparoscopic surgical approach. With both approaches, Meckel's diverticulum is resected, the ulcerated area is identified, and the bleeding is stopped.
As with other gastrointestinal surgical procedures, possible postoperative complications include a small risk of wound infection and developing adhesions later in life.
After recovery, resection of Meckel's diverticulum generally has no effect on gastrointestinal functioning or nutrition.