Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common type of primary liver cancer in children with poor prognosis. It consists of fibrolamellar carcinoma (FLC) and non-FLC HCC. Unlike HCC in adult patients, childhood HCC can occur without underlying liver disease/cirrhosis. The research objective of our laboratory is to identify cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying childhood liver cancer development. We are approaching this topic from multiple angles, including alterations in the gene expression and microRNA profiles, abnormal activation of developmental pathways, and metabolic rewiring. We are using in vitro and in vivo models as well as analyses of clinical specimens to test our hypotheses (Figure 1).