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Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome / CHAOS is a condition in which the fetus has:
The airway obstruction in Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome / CHAOS may be due to:
Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome / CHAOS is detected by ultrasound as a complete or nearly complete obstruction of the upper airway.
The lungs appear extremely large. The diaphragm may be inverted and the heart compressed.
The heart may appear elongated with its chambers compressed by the enlarged large lungs.
The tracheobronchial tubes may be dilated and the fetus may have abnormal breathing movements.
Although a fetus diagnosed with Congenital High Airway Obstruction Syndrome (associated with hydrops) is unlikely to survive without fetal intervention, in some cases the hydrops resolves and the fetus can survive.
The mother should have a detailed ultrasound to detect associated abnormalities. A fetal echocardiogram will detect structural heart disease. A prenatal karyotype (the study of the chromosomes of cells) will confirm chromosomal abnormalities.
The fetus should be followed closely for early signs of hydrops (in utero heart failure). The parents will want to consult with a medical geneticist and a pediatric surgeon to plan for delivery at a tertiary-care hospital that has expertise and experience in the EXIT (ex utero intrapartum treatment) procedure.
For more information or to request an appointment, contact the Cincinnati Children's Fetal Care Center at 1-888-338-2559 or use our online form.
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