A photo of Kristin Melton.

Kristin R. Melton, MD

  • Director, Neonatal-Perinatal Fellowship Program, Division of Neonatology
  • Associate Director, Newborn Intensive Care Unit (NICU), Division of Neonatology
  • Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics
I am particularly interested in studying ways to improve medication safety in intensive care unit environments. This is one way we can significantly influence the course of care for patients.



I am a practicing neonatologist and see patients within the Cincinnati Children’s Regional Center for Newborn Intensive Care. Here, I care for newborns with complex congenital anomalies and genetic defects.

In addition to caring for patients, I conduct research on patient safety and unplanned extubations.

I am particularly interested in studying ways to improve medication safety in intensive care unit environments. This is one way we can significantly influence the course of care for patients.

I take a bioinformatics approach to integrate multiple medical devices to identify medication errors quickly and intervene. Our team has developed computerized algorithms that can be used in real-time to recognize medication errors and prompt providers to respond.

I also lead a quality improvement team that focuses on reducing unplanned extubations in the ICU environment. Through efforts to standardize care, we have shown a significant reduction in unplanned extubations and patient harm.

Neonatology is an area where you get to see cutting-edge medicine at work — where research reaches the patients you serve. I love that I have the opportunity to help a critically ill baby and see them return to health to be discharged to their family.


Reducing Pediatric Unplanned Extubation Across Multiple ICUs Using Quality Improvement. Melton, K; Ryan, C; Saunders, A; Zix, J. Pediatrics. 2022; 149.

The Generalizability of a Medication Administration Discrepancy Detection System: Quantitative Comparative Analysis. Kirkendall, E; Huth, H; Rauenbuehler, B; Moses, A; Melton, K; Ni, Y. JMIR Medical Informatics. 2020; 8.

Human-Based Errors Involving Smart Infusion Pumps: A Catalog of Error Types and Prevention Strategies. Kirkendall, ES; Timmons, K; Huth, H; Walsh, K; Melton, K. Drug Safety. 2020; 43:1073-1087.

Integrating and Evaluating the Data Quality and Utility of Smart Pump Information in Detecting Medication Administration Errors: Evaluation Study. Ni, Y; Lingren, T; Huth, H; Timmons, K; Melton, K; Kirkendall, E. JMIR Medical Informatics. 2020; 8.

Assessment of an Unplanned Extubation Bundle to Reduce Unplanned Extubations in Critically Ill Neonates, Infants, and Children. Klugman, D; Melton, K; Maynord, PO; Dawson, A; Madhavan, G; Montgomery, VL; Nock, M; Lee, A; Lyren, A. JAMA Pediatrics. 2020; 174.

Smart pumps improve medication safety but increase alert burden in neonatal care. Melton, KR; Timmons, K; Walsh, KE; Meinzen-Derr, JK; Kirkendall, E. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making. 2019; 19.

Data Challenges With Real-Time Safety Event Detection And Clinical Decision Support. Kirkendall, ES; Ni, Y; Lingren, T; Leonard, M; Hall, ES; Melton, K. Journal of Medical Internet Research. 2019; 21.

Case 2: Seizures, Apnea, Lethargy, and Persistent Hiccups in a Full-Term Newborn. Arya, S; Melton, K. NeoReviews. 2019; 20:e295-e297.

Heart Rate Characteristic Index Monitoring for Early Detection of Infections in Very Low Birth Weight Infants. Moreira, D; Melton, K; Meinzen-Derr, J; Tabangin, M; Kingma, P; Schibler, K. 2019; 5.

Foxc2 is required for proper cardiac neural crest cell migration, outflow tract septation, and ventricle expansion. Inman, KE; Caiaffa, CD; Melton, KR; Sandell, LL; Achilleos, A; Kume, T; Trainor, PA. Developmental Dynamics. 2018; 247:1286-1296.

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