A photo of Stephen Waggoner.

Associate Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics


Biography & Affiliation


As a postdoctoral trainee at the University of Massachusetts, I conducted work that led to the discovery of an immunoregulatory role of natural killer (NK) cells. This training — along with my interactions with friends suffering from autoimmune disease — fueled my current research interests.

At Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center, I study viruses and diseases associated with viral infections, vaccines, autoimmune disease, inflammatory disease, innate immunity, immune regulation and cellular immunotherapy.

The goals of my research are three-fold:

  • Improve and enable effective new vaccines for human disease
  • Understand pathogenesis of infectious, autoimmune and allergic disease
  • Develop new therapies capable of promoting sustained disease remission for lupus and other autoimmune conditions

Building on my early NK cell work, our lab has shown that NK cell regulatory activity constrains vaccine-induced immune responses and could be targeted to permit the development of effective vaccines. We have also been working on a cellular immunotherapy, which shows promise for the treatment of autoimmune disease.

I am a standing member of the National Institutes of Health HIV Immunopathogenesis and Vaccine Development Study Section. In 2014, I received the National Institute on Drug Abuse Avante-Garde Award for HIV/AIDS research. I have also received the Dr. Ralph and Marian Falk Medical Research Trust Catalyst Award.

Research Interests

Viral immunology; natural killer cells; immunoregulation; vaccines; autoimmunity; immune dysfunction in aging.

Academic Affiliation

Associate Professor, UC Department of Pediatrics

Research Divisions


Blog Posts


BA: St. Mary's College of Maryland, St. Mary's City, MD, 2000.

PhD: University of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA, 2007.

Post Doc: University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, MA.


Glioblastoma Genetic Drivers Dictate the Function of Tumor-Associated Macrophages/Microglia and Responses to CSF1R Inhibition. Rao, R; Han, R; Ogurek, S; Xue, C; Wu, LM; Zhang, L; Zhang, L; Hu, J; Phoenix, TN; Waggoner, SN; et al. Neuro-Oncology. 2021.

Natural killer cell immunosuppressive function requires CXCR3-dependent redistribution within lymphoid tissues. Ali, A; Canaday, LM; Feldman, HA; Cevik, H; Moran, MT; Rajaram, S; Lakes, N; Tuazon, JA; Seelamneni, H; Krishnamurthy, D; et al. Journal of Clinical Investigation. 2021; 131.

Targeting natural killer cells to enhance vaccine responses. Cox, A; Cevik, H; Feldman, HA; Canaday, LM; Lakes, N; Waggoner, SN. Trends in Pharmacological Sciences. 2021; 42:789-801.

Tumor Microenvironment-Derived R-spondins Enhance Anti-Tumor Immunity to Suppress Tumor Growth and Sensitize for Immune Checkpoint Blockade Therapy. Tang, Y; Xu, Q; Hu, L; Yan, X; Feng, X; Yokota, A; Wang, W; Zhan, D; Krishnamurthy, D; Ochayon, DE; et al. Cancer Discovery. 2021.

The Effect of Unconventional Cytokine Combinations on NK-Cell Responses to Viral Infection. Ochayon, DE; Waggoner, SN. Frontiers in Immunology. 2021; 12.

Immunomodulatory effects of cytokine-induced expansion of cytotoxic lymphocytes in a mouse model of lupus-like disease. Reighard, SD; Krishnamurthy, D; Cevik, H; Ochayon, DE; Ali, A; Seelamneni, H; Brunner, HI; Waggoner, SN. Cytotherapy. 2021; 23:37-45.

The Promise and Peril of Natural Killer Cell Therapies in Pulmonary Infection. Rajaram, S; Canaday, LM; Ochayon, DE; Rangel, KM; Ali, A; Gyurova, IE; Krishnamurthy, D; Fletcher, JS; Reighard, SD; Cox, A; et al. Immunity. 2020; 52:887-889.

Natural Killer Cell Regulation of B Cell Responses in the Context of Viral Infection. Gyurova, IE; Ali, A; Waggoner, SN. Viral Immunology. 2020; 33:334-341.

Therapeutic Targeting of Follicular T Cells with Chimeric Antigen Receptor-Expressing Natural Killer Cells. Reighard, SD; Cranert, SA; Rangel, KM; Ali, A; Gyurova, IE; de la Cruz-Lynch, AT; Tuazon, JA; Khodoun, MV; Kottyan, LC; Smith, DF; et al. 2020; 1.

IL-33 promotes type 1 cytokine expression via p38 MAPK in human NK cells. Ochayon, DE; Ali, A; Alarcon, PC; Krishnamurthy, D; Kottyan, LC; Borchers, MT; Waggoner, SN. Journal of Leukocyte Biology. 2020; 107:663-671.