Types of Uveitis
There are several different types of uveitis. The types get their names based on the part of the eye that is affected.
Inflammation of the iris and/or ciliary body. It is also known as iritis or iridocyclitis.
Inflammation of the ciliary body and may extend to the nearby vitreous humor. This type of uveitis is also known as pars planitis.
Inflammation of the choroid and may extend to the nearby retina and/or vitreous humor.
Inflammation of all parts of the uveal tract.
These types of uveitis can also be labeled as granulomatous (gran-u-lo-ma-tis) or non-granulomatous. Granulomas refer to the kind of inflammatory cells that are present. These can be identified with an eye exam by your eye doctor, or by a biopsy of the tissue in the eye.
Signs and Symptoms of Uveitis
The symptoms of uveitis can vary depending on the type of uveitis. Some forms of uveitis have no symptoms. Other forms of uveitis may have symptoms including pain, redness and light sensitivity. Floaters and a decrease in vision may also occur.
Causes of Uveitis
Uveitis and Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis
The uveitis associated with juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is an anterior uveitis that has no symptoms initially. This type of uveitis is more common in patients:
- With a positive ANA (antinuclear antibody) test
- Whose age at onset of JIA is less than 6 years old
- With the oligoarticular form of JIA
However, everyone with JIA needs to get periodic eye slit lamp exams to check for uveitis. The eye inflammation can also occur when the joint disease is inactive. The frequency of eye exams will depend on your child's risk of developing eye problems. Your doctor will tell you how often you should get eye exams.
Diagnosis of Uveitis
Uveitis is diagnosed by a slit lamp exam. The slit lamp exam is a very quick, easy and painless test. It is done by shining a light through a microscope to look for inflammation in the eye.
If your child is diagnosed with uveitis, the eye doctor will likely recommend further tests to look into the cause of your child's uveitis. The exact tests that are ordered will be based on the part of the eye that is inflamed and whether the inflammation is granulomatous or non-granulomatous. Your child's eye doctor may recommend your child be evaluated by a rheumatologist to look for an associated autoimmune disease.
Likewise, if your child is diagnosed with an autoimmune disease that can be associated with uveitis, such as juvenile idiopathic arthritis or sarcoidosis, your child's rheumatologist will recommend an exam by an eye doctor to check for uveitis.
Rheumatologists and eye doctors often work together to determine the best treatment for your child.
Treatment for Uveitis
The treatment of uveitis depends on the type seen. Uveitis caused by an infection may require antibiotics or may even get better on its own. Uveitis of unknown cause or that is associated with an autoimmune disease usually requires treatment with medications. Medications to treat the inflammation can be given locally in the eye or systemically by mouth or by injection.
Local treatment with eye drops is usually tried first. Several kinds of eye drops may be used. Steroid eye drops are typically used for treatment. Steroids help to reduce the inflammation. Depending on how much inflammation is present, the steroid eye drops may need to be given several times a day. Drops that dilate the eye are also an important part of treatment. These dilating drops help to prevent adhesions from forming. Adhesions are like bands of scar tissue that can occur as a result of inflammation. If present, the adhesions can prevent the pupil from getting larger or smaller.
Steroid eye drops work best for anterior uveitis or inflammation in the front of the eye. They do not work as well for the treatment of intermediate or posterior uveitis (inflammation in the middle or back of the eye). It is difficult for the drops to get deeper into the eye. Therefore, a local injection (shot in the eye) of steroids may be used to treat intermediate or posterior uveitis.
If local treatment is not effective, then your eye doctor may recommend systemic treatment. Systemic treatment is medication given by mouth, injection, or infusion that travels throughout the whole body. This therapy is usually managed by a rheumatologist instead of the eye doctor. Rheumatologists are doctors that specialize in the treatment of different types of inflammation.
Systemic treatment usually consists of stronger anti-inflammatory medications. The choices of medications may vary. This would be discussed with you and your child and the physician to determine the best choice for your child.
Complications With Uveitis
Complications will vary from child to child. Some children may not get any complications. Complications may occur due to the inflammation or sometimes from the medications. Possible complications that may occur.
- Cataracts (clouding of the lens in the eye)
- Glaucoma (increased pressure in the eye)
- Posterior synechiae (adhesions or bands of scar tissue)
All of the complications could possibly lead to an element of visual loss. However, your child's eye doctor will closely monitor for any problems.
If complications do occur, different treatments are available. If your child develops complications, it may prompt your eye doctor to recommend changes in treatment plan.