The most common voice disorder in children is the result of “phono trauma” or voice misuse such as yelling or making loud "play" sounds, throat clearing, and excessive coughing. These voice behaviors cause the vocal folds to close tightly against each other, causing blister-like bruises. These bruised areas can harden into callus-like bumps called vocal nodules.
Other types and causes of voice disorders can include:
- Vocal fold paralysis (one or both vocal folds do not move)
- Vocal fold cysts (fluid-filled sac)
- Papilloma (wart-like growths)
- Laryngeal web (band of tissue between vocal folds)
- Muscle tension dysphonia (excessive muscle tightness), resulting in a strained voice
- Subglottic stenosis (narrowing of the airway)