Pericarditis is an inflammation or infection of the pericardium, the thin sac (membrane) that surrounds the heart. There is a small amount of fluid between the inner and outer layers of the pericardium.
When the pericardium becomes inflamed, the amount of fluid between its two layers increases, compressing the heart and interfering with the heart's ability to function properly.
In children, pericarditis is most likely to occur following surgery to repair congenital (present at birth) heart defects or acquired heart disease. However, other causes may include:
- Infection (viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic)
- Chest trauma or injury
- Connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (lupus)
Pericarditis Signs and Symptoms
The following are the most common symptoms of pericarditis. However, each child may experience symptoms differently. Symptoms may include chest pain that:
- Can be felt especially behind the breastbone, and sometimes beneath the clavicle (collarbone), neck, and left shoulder
- Is a sharp, piercing pain over the center or left side of the chest that increases as the child takes a deep breath
- A low-grade fever
- Loss of appetite
- Irregular heartbeat
Children may not be able to describe that they have "chest pain" or be able to explain how they feel. Sometimes, non-specific symptoms such as irritability, loss of appetite, or fatigue will be all that the child is able to express.
The symptoms of pericarditis may resemble other medical conditions or heart problems. Always consult your child's physician for a diagnosis.
Your child's physician may have heard an abnormal heart sound called a rub, which occurs when there is irritation of the pericardial membranes. In addition to a complete medical history and physical examination, diagnosis for pericarditis may include:
- Blood tests (to evaluate the degree of inflammation)
- Chest X-ray, a diagnostic test which uses invisible electromagnetic energy beams to produce images of internal tissues, bones and organs onto film
- Echocardiography (echo), a procedure that evaluates the structure and function of the heart by using sound waves recorded on an electronic sensor that produce a moving picture of the heart and heart valves
Specific treatment for pericarditis will be determined by your child's physician based on:
- Your child's age, overall health, and medical history
- Extent of the disease
- Cause of the disease
- Your child's tolerance for specific medications, procedures, or therapies
- Expectations for the course of the disease
- Your opinion or preference The goal of treatment for pericarditis is to determine and eliminate the cause of the disease.
Treatment may include:
- Medication (i.e., analgesics and anti-inflammatory drugs)
- Aspiration (removal) of excess fluid