Early onset scoliosis is the abnormal, side-to-side curve of spine in children under 5 years old. There is no known cause for a young child to develop scoliosis at this age. It generally affects boys more often than girls. There are multiple causes for scoliosis at a very young age including:

  • Congenital scoliosis, infantile scoliosis (0-3 years, predominantly in boys), no known cause
  • Syndromic scoliosis (such as NF)
  • Neuromuscular (SMA, CP)
  • Congenital scoliosis (present at birth, with spine abnormalities) and infantile scoliosis (birth to 3 years). They can be linked with:
    • Chest deformities such as pigeon breast, when the breastbone is pushed outward at birth, and fused ribs
    • Neuromuscular disorders such as cerebral palsy or muscular disease 
    • Various syndromes such as neurofibromatosis