Publications

Hysinger, EB; Higano, NS; Critser, PJ; Woods, JC. Imaging in neonatal respiratory disease. Paediatric Respiratory Reviews. 2022.

Higano, NS; Gandhi, DB; Xiao, Q; Gunatilaka, CC; Hysinger, EB; Fleck, RJ; Woods, JC; Bates, AJ. Virtual Bronchoscopy of Neonatal Airway Malacia via High-Resolution, Respiratory-gated Magnetic Resonance Imaging. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2022; 206:e42-e43.

Higano, NS; Cao, X; Guo, J; Wang, X; Kroenke, CD; Filuta, AL; Bridges, JP; Woods, JC. Fetal lung development via quantitative biomarkers from diffusion MRI and histological validation in rhesus macaques. Journal of Perinatology. 2022; 42:866-872.

Hayes, D; Shukla, RK; Cheng, Y; Gecili, E; Merling, MR; Szczesniak, RD; Ziady, AG; Woods, JC; Hall-Stoodley, L; Liyanage, NP M; et al. Tissue-localized immune responses in people with cystic fibrosis and respiratory nontuberculous mycobacteria infection. JCI insight. 2022; 7.

Tkach, JA; Higano, NS; Taylor, MD; Moore, RA; Hossain, M; Huang, G; Spielberg, DR; Fain, SB; Kingma, PS; Woods, JC. Quantitative cardiopulmonary magnetic resonance imaging in neonatal congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatric Radiology. 2022.

Adaikalam, SA; Higano, NS; Hysinger, EB; Bates, AJ; Fleck, RJ; Schapiro, AH; House, MA; Nathan, AT; Ahlfeld, SK; Brady, JM; et al. Tracheostomy prediction model in neonatal bronchopulmonary dysplasia via lung and airway MRI. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2022; 57:1042-1050.

Higano, NS; Bates, AJ; Gunatilaka, CC; Hysinger, EB; Critser, PJ; Hirsch, R; Woods, JC; Fleck, RJ. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia from chest radiographs to magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography: adding value. Pediatric Radiology. 2022; 52:643-660.

Adaikalam, SA; Higano, NS; Hysinger, EB; Bates, AJ; Fleck, RJ; Schapiro, AH; House, MA; Nathan, AT; Ahlfeld, SK; Brady, JM; et al. Cover Image, Volume 57, Number 4, April 2022. Pediatric pulmonology. Supplement. 2022; 57:ii-ii.

Riccetti, MR; Ushakumary, MG; Waltamath, M; Green, J; Snowball, J; Dautel, SE; Endale, M; Lami, B; Woods, J; Ahlfeld, SK; et al. Maladaptive functional changes in alveolar fibroblasts due to perinatal hyperoxia impair epithelial differentiation. JCI insight. 2022; 7.

Dournes, G; Hall, CS; Willmering, MM; Brody, AS; Macey, J; Bui, S; de Senneville, BD; Berger, P; Laurent, F; Benlala, I; et al. Artificial intelligence in computed tomography for quantifying lung changes in the era of CFTR modulators. European Respiratory Journal. 2022; 59.

Critser, PJ; Evers, PD; Schneider, K; Hirsch, R; Taylor, MD; Woods, JC; Lang, SM. Echocardiography-derived septal curvature correlated with invasive hemodynamics in pediatric pulmonary hypertension. Journal of Echocardiography. 2022; 20:24-32.

Bdaiwi, AS; Niedbalski, PJ; Hossain, MM; Willmering, MM; Walkup, LL; Wang, H; Thomen, RP; Ruppert, K; Woods, JC; Cleveland, ZI. Improving hyperpolarized 129 Xe ADC mapping in pediatric and adult lungs with uncertainty propagation. NMR in Biomedicine. 2022; 35.

Roach, DJ; Willmering, MM; Plummer, JW; Walkup, LL; Zhang, Y; Hossain, MM; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Hyperpolarized 129Xenon MRI Ventilation Defect Quantification via Thresholding and Linear Binning in Multiple Pulmonary Diseases. Academic Radiology. 2022; 29 Suppl 2:S145-S155.

Cristea, AI; Baker, CD; Allen, J; Amin, R; Austin, ED; Cataletto, ME; Collaco, JM; Eldredge, LC; Fleck, RJ; Gelfand, A; et al. Outpatient Respiratory Management of Infants, Children, and Adolescents with Post-Prematurity Respiratory Disease: An Official American Thoracic Society Clinical Practice Guideline. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2021; 204:e115-e133.

Gunatilaka, CC; Hysinger, EB; Schuh, A; Gandhi, DB; Higano, NS; Xiao, Q; Hahn, AD; Fain, SB; Fleck, RJ; Woods, JC; et al. Neonates With Tracheomalacia Generate Auto-Positive End-Expiratory Pressure via Glottis Closure. Chest. 2021; 160:2168-2177.

Mukthapuram, S; Beebe, J; Tkach, JA; Arya, S; Haberman, B; Peiro, J; Lim, FY; Woods, JC; Kingma, PS. Magnetic Resonance Imaging Assessment of Pulmonary Vascularity in Infants with Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia: A Novel Tool for Direct Assessment of Severity of Pulmonary Hypertension and Hypoplasia. Journal of Pediatrics. 2021; 239:89-94.

Niedbalski, PJ; Hall, CS; Castro, M; Eddy, RL; Rayment, JH; Svenningsen, S; Parraga, G; Zanette, B; Santyr, GE; Thomen, RP; et al. Protocols for multi-site trials using hyperpolarized 129 Xe MRI for imaging of ventilation, alveolar-airspace size, and gas exchange: A position paper from the 129 Xe MRI clinical trials consortium. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2021; 86:2966-2986.

Walkup, LL; Myers, KC; Willmering, MM; Mehta, PA; Nelson, AS; Fleck, RJ; Woods, JC; Davies, SM; Towe, CT. Modern Lung Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Screen for Pulmonary Complications in Patients with Dyskeratosis Congenita. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2021; 204:1340-1343.

Zafar, MA; Sengupta, R; Bates, A; Woods, JC; Radchenko, C; McCormack, FX; Panos, RJ. Oral Positive Expiratory Pressure Device for Excessive Dynamic Airway Collapse Caused by Emphysema. Chest. 2021; 160:e333-e337.

Xiao, Q; Stewart, NJ; Willmering, MM; Gunatilaka, CC; Thomen, RP; Schuh, A; Krishnamoorthy, G; Wang, H; Amin, RS; Dumoulin, CL; et al. Human upper-airway respiratory airflow: In vivo comparison of computational fluid dynamics simulations and hyperpolarized 129Xe phase contrast MRI velocimetry. PLoS ONE. 2021; 16.

Sun, F; Wang, G; Pradhan, A; Xu, K; Gomez-Arroyo, J; Zhang, Y; Kalin, GT; Deng, Z; Vagnozzi, RJ; He, H; et al. Nanoparticle Delivery of STAT3 Alleviates Pulmonary Hypertension in a Mouse Model of Alveolar Capillary Dysplasia. Circulation. 2021; 144:539-555.

Willmering, MM; Cleveland, ZI; Walkup, LL; Woods, JC. Removal of off-resonance xenon gas artifacts in pulmonary gas-transfer MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2021; 86:907-915.

Trisno, SL; Higano, NS; Kechele, D; Nasr, T; Chung, W; Zorn, AM; Woods, JC; Wells, JM; Kingma, PS. Case Report: Esophageal Bronchus in a Neonate, With Image, Histological, and Molecular Analysis. Frontiers in Pediatrics. 2021; 9.

Moutafidis, D; Gavra, M; Golfinopoulos, S; Oikonomopoulou, C; Kitra, V; Woods, JC; Kaditis, AG. Lung hyperinflation quantitated by chest CT in children with bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome following allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation. Clinical Imaging. 2021; 75:97-104.

Lin, NY; Roach, DJ; Willmering, MM; Walkup, LL; Hossain, MM; Desirazu, P; Cleveland, ZI; Guilbert, TW; Woods, JC. 129Xe MRI as a measure of clinical disease severity for pediatric asthma. Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology. 2021; 147:2146-2153.e1.

Dournes, G; Walkup, LL; Benlala, I; Willmering, MM; Macey, J; Bui, S; Laurent, F; Woods, JC. The Clinical Use of Lung MRI in Cystic Fibrosis: What, Now, How?. Chest. 2021; 159:2205-2217.

Gandhi, DB; Rice, A; Gunatilaka, CC; Higano, NS; Fleck, RJ; de Alarcon, A; Hart, CK; Kuo, IC; Amin, RS; Woods, JC; et al. Quantitative Evaluation of Subglottic Stenosis Using Ultrashort Echo Time MRI in a Rabbit Model. Laryngoscope. 2021; 131:E1971-E1979.

Hahn, AD; Malkus, A; Kammerman, J; Higano, N; Walkup, LL; Woods, J; Fain, SB. Effects of neonatal lung abnormalities on parenchymal R2 * estimates. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2021; 53:1853-1861.

Willmering, MM; Roach, DJ; Kramer, EL; Walkup, LL; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Sensitive structural and functional measurements and 1-year pulmonary outcomes in pediatric cystic fibrosis. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 2021; 20:533-539.

Pennati, F; Walkup, LL; Chhabra, A; Towe, C; Myers, K; Aliverti, A; Woods, JC. Quantitative inspiratory-expiratory chest CT to evaluate pulmonary involvement in pediatric hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation patients. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2021; 56:1026-1035.

Niedbalski, PJ; Cochran, AS; Freeman, MS; Guo, J; Fugate, EM; Davis, CB; Dahlke, J; Quirk, JD; Varisco, BM; Woods, JC; et al. Validating in vivo hyperpolarized 129 Xe diffusion MRI and diffusion morphometry in the mouse lung. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2021; 85:2160-2173.

Yang, MM; Higano, NS; Gunatilaka, CC; Hysinger, EB; Amin, RS; Woods, JC; Bates, AJ. Subglottic Stenosis Position Affects Work of Breathing. Laryngoscope. 2021; 131:E1220-E1226.

Higano, NS; Ruoss, JL; Woods, JC. Modern pulmonary imaging of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Journal of Perinatology. 2021; 41:707-717.

Goralski, JL; Stewart, NJ; Woods, JC. Novel imaging techniques for cystic fibrosis lung disease. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2021; 56 Suppl 1:S40-S54.

Higano, NS; Thomen, RP; Quirk, JD; Huyck, HL; Hahn, AD; Fain, SB; Pryhuber, GS; Woods, JC. Alveolar Airspace Size in Healthy and Diseased Infant Lungs Measured via Hyperpolarized 3He Gas Diffusion Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Neonatology. 2021; 117:704-712.

Bates, AJ; Higano, NS; Woods, JC. Non-Bronchoscopic Assessment of the Airways. Diagnostic and Interventional Bronchoscopy in Children. 2021.

Critser, PJ; Higano, NS; Lang, SM; Kingma, PS; Fleck, RJ; Hirsch, R; Taylor, MD; Woods, JC. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging derived septal curvature in neonates with bronchopulmonary dysplasia associated pulmonary hypertension. Journal of Cardiovascular Magnetic Resonance. 2020; 22.

Gunatilaka, CC; Schuh, A; Higano, NS; Woods, JC; Bates, AJ. The effect of airway motion and breathing phase during imaging on CFD simulations of respiratory airflow. Computers in Biology and Medicine. 2020; 127.

Woods, JC; Wild, JM; Wielpuetz, MO; Clancy, JP; Hatabu, H; Kauczor, H; van Beek, EJ R; Altes, TA. Current state of the art MRI for the longitudinal assessment of cystic fibrosis. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2020; 52:1306-1320.

Plummer, JW; Emami, K; Dummer, A; Woods, JC; Walkup, LL; Cleveland, ZI. A semi-empirical model to optimize continuous-flow hyperpolarized 129Xe production under practical cryogenic-accumulation conditions. Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 2020; 320.

Polverino, F; Stern, DA; Ruocco, G; Balestro, E; Bassetti, M; Candelli, M; Cirillo, B; Contoli, M; Corsico, A; D’Amico, F; et al. Comorbidities, Cardiovascular Therapies, and COVID-19 Mortality: A Nationwide, Italian Observational Study (ItaliCO). Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine. 2020; 7.

Thomen, RP; Woods, JC; Sturm, PF; Jain, V; Walkup, LL; Higano, NS; Quirk, JD; Varisco, BM. Lung microstructure in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis before and after posterior spinal fusion. PLoS ONE. 2020; 15.

Benlala, I; Point, S; Leung, C; Berger, P; Woods, JC; Raherison, C; Laurent, F; Macey, J; Dournes, G. Volumetric quantification of lung MR signal intensities using ultrashort TE as an automated score in cystic fibrosis. European Radiology. 2020; 30:5479-5488.

Gouwens, KR; Higano, NS; Marks, KT; Stimpfl, JN; Hysinger, EB; Woods, JC; Kingma, PS. Magentic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Regional Lung Vts in Severe Neonatal Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2020; 202:1024-1031.

Gunatilaka, CC; Higano, NS; Hysinger, EB; Gandhi, DB; Fleck, RJ; Hahn, AD; Fain, SB; Woods, JC; Bates, AJ. Increased Work of Breathing due to Tracheomalacia in Neonates. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2020; 17:1247-1256.

Roach, DJ; Ruangnapa, K; Fleck, RJ; Rattan, MS; Hossain, MM; Guilbert, TW; Woods, JC. Structural lung abnormalities on computed tomography correlate with asthma inflammation in bronchoscopic alveolar lavage fluid. The Journal of asthma research. 2020; 57:968-979.

Hall, CS; Quirk, JD; Goss, CW; Lew, D; Kozlowski, J; Thomen, RP; Woods, JC; Tustison, NJ; III, MJ P; Gallagher, L; et al. Single-Session Bronchial Thermoplasty Guided by 129Xe Magnetic Resonance Imaging. A Pilot Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2020; 202:524-534.

Hahn, AD; Malkus, A; Kammerman, J; Higano, N; Walkup, L; Woods, J; Fain, SB. Characterization of R 2 ∗ and tissue density in the human lung: Application to neonatal imaging in the intensive care unit. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2020; 84:920-927.

Thomen, RP; Walkup, LL; Roach, DJ; Higano, N; Schapiro, A; Brody, A; Clancy, JP; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Regional Structure-Function in Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Using Hyperpolarized 129Xe and Ultrashort Echo Magnetic Resonance Imaging. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2020; 202:290-292.

Willmering, MM; Niedbalski, PJ; Wang, H; Walkup, LL; Robison, RK; Pipe, JG; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Improved pulmonary 129 Xe ventilation imaging via 3D-spiral UTE MRI. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2020; 84:312-320.

Polverino, F; Hysinger, EB; Gupta, N; Willmering, M; Olin, T; Abman, SH; Woods, JC. Lung MRI as a Potential Complementary Diagnostic Tool for Early COPD. American Journal of Medicine. 2020; 133:757-760.

Hysinger, EB; Bates, AJ; Higano, NS; Benscoter, D; Fleck, RJ; Hart, CK; Burg, G; De Alarcon, A; Kingma, PS; Woods, JC. Ultrashort Echo-Time MRI for the Assessment of Tracheomalacia in Neonates. Chest. 2020; 157:595-602.

Aliboni, L; Pennati, F; Royston, TJ; Woods, JC; Aliverti, A. Simulation of bronchial airway acoustics in healthy and asthmatic subjects. PLoS ONE. 2020; 15.

Ash, SY; Sanchez-Ferrero, GV; Schiebler, ML; Rahaghi, FN; Rai, A; Come, CE; Ross, JC; Colon, AG; Cardet, JC; Bleecker, ER; et al. Estimated Ventricular Size, Asthma Severity, and Exacerbations: The Severe Asthma Research Program III Cohort. Chest. 2020; 157:258-267.

Critser, PJ; Higano, NS; Tkach, JA; Olson, ES; Spielberg, DR; Kingma, PS; Fleck, RJ; Lang, SM; Moore, RA; Taylor, MD; et al. Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging Evaluation of Neonatal Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia-associated Pulmonary Hypertension. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2020; 201:73-82.

Higano, NS; Woods, JC. Advancing Imaging Modalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Other Neonatal Chronic Lung Diseases. Updates on Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease. : Elsevier; Elsevier; 2020.

Higano, NS; Woods, JC. Chapter 6 Advancing Imaging Modalities in Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia and Other Neonatal Chronic Lung Diseases. Updates on Neonatal Chronic Lung Disease. 2020.

Riggs, KW; Giannini, CM; Szugye, N; Woods, J; Chin, C; Moore, RA; Morales, DL S; Zafar, F. Time for evidence-based, standardized donor size matching for pediatric heart transplantation. Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery. 2019; 158:1652-1660.e4.

Adaikalam, SA; Higano, NS; Tkach, JA; Lim, FY; Haberman, B; Woods, JC; Kingma, PS. Neonatal lung growth in congenital diaphragmatic hernia: evaluation of lung density and mass by pulmonary MRI. Pediatric Research. 2019; 86:635-640.

Willmering, MM; Robison, RK; Wang, H; Pipe, JG; Woods, JC. Implementation of the FLORET UTE sequence for lung imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2019; 82:1091-1100.

Couch, MJ; Thomen, R; Kanhere, N; Hu, R; Ratjen, F; Woods, J; Santyr, G. A two-center analysis of hyperpolarized 129Xe lung MRI in stable pediatric cystic fibrosis: Potential as a biomarker for multi-site trials. Journal of Cystic Fibrosis. 2019; 18:728-733.

Walkup, LL; Roach, DJ; Hall, CS; Gupta, N; Thomen, RP; Cleveland, ZI; McCormack, FX; Woods, JC. Cyst Ventilation Heterogeneity and Alveolar Airspace Dilation as Early Disease Markers in Lymphangioleiomyomatosis. Annals of the American Thoracic Society. 2019; 16:1008-1016.

Niedbalski, PJ; Willmering, MM; Robertson, SH; Freeman, MS; Loew, W; Giaquinto, RO; Ireland, C; Pratt, RG; Dumoulin, CL; Woods, JC; et al. Mapping and correcting hyperpolarized magnetization decay with radial keyhole imaging. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2019; 82:367-376.

Bates, AJ; Schuh, A; Amine-Eddine, G; McConnell, K; Loew, W; Fleck, RJ; Woods, JC; Dumoulin, CL; Amin, RS. Assessing the relationship between movement and airflow in the upper airway using computational fluid dynamics with motion determined from magnetic resonance imaging. Clinical Biomechanics. 2019; 66:88-96.

Spielberg, DR; Brody, AS; Baker, ML; Woods, JC; Towe, CT. Ground-glass burden as a biomarker in neuroendocrine cell hyperplasia of infancy. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2019; 54:822-827.

Walkup, LL; Myers, K; El-Bietar, J; Nelson, A; Willmering, MM; Grimley, M; Davies, SM; Towe, C; Woods, JC. Xenon-129 MRI detects ventilation deficits in paediatric stem cell transplant patients unable to perform spirometry. European Respiratory Journal. 2019; 53.

McCarthy, C; Bartholmai, BJ; Woods, JC; McCormack, FX; Trapnell, BC. Automated Parenchymal Pattern Analysis of Treatment Responses in Pulmonary Alveolar Proteinosis. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2019; 199:1151-1152.

Bates, A; McConnell, K; Fleck, R; Dumoulin, C; Woods, J; Amin, R. 0759 Quantification of Neuromuscular Effort in Upper Airways of Pediatric Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea. Sleep. 2019; 42:a305-a305.

Guo, J; Hardie, WD; Cleveland, ZI; Davidson, C; Xu, X; Madala, SK; Woods, JC. Longitudinal free-breathing MRI measurement of murine lung physiology in a progressive model of lung fibrosis. Journal of Applied Physiology Respiratory Environmental and Exercise Physiology. 2019; 126:1138-1149.

Bates, AJ; Higano, NS; Hysinger, EB; Fleck, RJ; Hahn, AD; Fain, SB; Kingma, PS; Woods, JC. Quantitative Assessment of Regional Dynamic Airway Collapse in Neonates via Retrospectively Respiratory-Gated 1 H Ultrashort Echo Time MRI. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2019; 49:659-667.

Walkup, LL; Higano, NS; Woods, JC. Structural and Functional Pulmonary Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Pediatrics-From the Neonate to the Young Adult. Academic Radiology. 2019; 26:424-430.

Walkup, LL; Towe, CT; Bdaiwi, A; Merrow, AC; Hammill, AM; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Evidence of Normal Alveolar Size in Pediatric Generalized Lymphatic Anomaly. American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine. 2018.

McCarthy, C; Lee, E; Bridges, JP; Sallese, A; Suzuki, T; Woods, JC; Bartholmai, BJ; Wang, T; Chalk, C; Carey, BC; et al. Statin as a novel pharmacotherapy of pulmonary alveolar proteinosis. Nature Communications. 2018; 9.

Bates, AJ; Schuh, A; McConnell, K; Williams, BM; Lanier, JM; Willmering, MM; Woods, JC; Fleck, RJ; Dumoulin, CL; Amin, RS. A novel method to generate dynamic boundary conditions for airway CFD by mapping upper airway movement with non-rigid registration of dynamic and static MRI. International Journal for Numerical Methods in Biomedical Engineering. 2018; 34.

Pennati, F; Roach, DJ; Clancy, JP; Brody, AS; Fleck, RJ; Aliverti, A; Woods, JC. Assessment of pulmonary structure-function relationships in young children and adolescents with cystic fibrosis by multivolume proton-MRI and CT. Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging. 2018; 48:531-542.

Woods, JC; Conradi, MS. 3He diffusion MRI in human lungs. Journal of Magnetic Resonance. 2018; 292:90-98.

Higgins, RD; Jobe, AH; Koso-Thomas, M; Bancalari, E; Viscardi, RM; Hartert, TV; Ryan, RM; Kallapur, SG; Steinhorn, RH; Konduri, GG; et al. Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: Executive Summary of a Workshop. Journal of Pediatrics. 2018; 197:300-308.

Guo, J; Cao, X; Cleveland, ZI; Woods, JC. Murine pulmonary imaging at 7T: T2* and T1 with anisotropic UTE. Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. 2018; 79:2254-2264.

Spielberg, DR; Walkup, LL; Stein, JM; Crotty, EJ; Rattan, MS; Hossain, MM; Brody, AS; Woods, JC. Quantitative CT scans of lung parenchymal pathology in premature infants ages 0-6 years. Pediatric Pulmonology. 2018; 53:316-323.

Higano, NS; Bates, AJ; Tkach, JA; Fleck, RJ; Lim, FY; Woods, JC; Kingma, PS. Pre- and post-operative visualization of neonatal esophageal atresia/tracheoesophageal fistula via magnetic resonance imaging. Journal of Pediatric Surgery Case Reports. 2018; 29:5-8.