Patients come from around the world come to Cincinnati Children’s for expert treatment for brain tumors in children or young adults. Some patients are newly diagnosed and others seek care for recurrent or treatment-resistant tumors.
Conditions we treat include:
- Gliomas. The most common type of brain tumor is glioma. These tumors begin from “glial” cells, which support functions of the nervous system. There are two major groups of glioma:
Examples of gliomas include:
- Astrocytomas, which typically occur in the cerebellum, the area of the brain that plays a role in almost all of the body’s physical movement.
- Ependymomas, which usually begin in the lining of the ventricles (large open structures deep in the brain) or in the spinal cord, near the cerebellum.
- Optic nerve gliomas, which usually start in the optic nerve. They can cause vision issues and other problems.
- Embryonal tumors. These can include:
- Atypical teratoid rhabdoid tumor (ATRT) is a rare and aggressive type of cancer that can appear in the brain or spinal cord.
- Medulloblastoma, which commonly occurs in the cerebellum and blocks cerebrospinal fluid from draining, causing increased pressure in the brain. Medulloblastoma to be considered a type of Primitive Neuroectodermal Tumors (PNET), but that term isn’t used anymore.
- Craniopharyngiomas, which arise above the pituitary gland, a pea-sized structure attached to the base of the brain that helps control the body’s growth, development and regulation.
- Germ cell tumors of the brain include germinoma, teratoma, embryonal carcinoma and yolk-sac tumors. These typically occur in the first two years of life but can occur later.
- Choroid plexus tumors, which arise from cells lining the ventricles of the brain.
- Meningeal tumors, such as meningioma, which arise from the membranes (meninges) surrounding the brain and spinal cord.
- Mixed neuronal-glial tumors, which have abnormal neuron cells and abnormal glial cells. Examples include those listed below.
- Ganglioglioma are usually small and noncancerous and develop slowly.
- Subependymal giant cell tumors may occur in children and adults who have a condition called tuberous sclerosis.
- Pleomorphic xanthoastrocytoma often occur between 10 and 20 years of age. They can be cancerous or noncancerous and may spread to other parts of the brain and spine.